Advances In Solar Energy - Böer Karl W. (Curatore) | Libro Springer 10/2011 -

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böer karl w. (curatore) - advances in solar energy

Advances in Solar Energy An Annual Review of Research and Development

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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 10/2011
Edizione: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989


1 Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Unique Advantages of ?-Si Solar Cell.- 1.2.1 High Optical Absorption and Large Photoconductivity in the Visible Region.- 1.2.1 Existence of Valence Controllability.- 1.2.3 Large Area Non-epitaxial Growth on Any Foreign Substrate Material at Low Temperature.- 1.2.4 Large Scale Merit with High Mass Producibility.- 1.3 Structure and Electronic Density of States.- 1.4 Film Deposition and Valency Control of ?-Si and Its Alloys.- 1.5 Carrier Transport and Drift Type Photolovtaic Effect in ?-Si.- 1.6 Characterization of Material and Junction Properties.- 1.6.1 Built-in Potential.- 1.6.2 Mobility-lifetime Product and Interface Property.- 1.6.3 Density of Gap States.- 1.7 Key Technologies for Improving Efficiency.- 1.8 Heterojunction Solar Cell.- 1.9 ?-Si Basis Stacked Solar Cell.- 1.9.1 Photo-generated Current Continuity Rule.- 1.9.2 Absorption Coefficient Order Rule.- 1.10 Staebler-Wronski effect.- 1.11 Light Induced Degradation of ?-Si Solar Cell.- 1.12 Aspect of Application Systems.- 1.13 Conclusion.- 1.14 References.- 2 Advances in Solar Optical Materials.- 2.1 Abstract.- 2.2 Introduction.- 2.3 Antireflection Films.- 2.4 Metallic Reflector Materials.- 2.5 Solar Selective Absorbers.- 2.5.1 Intrinsic Absorbers.- 2.5.2 Optical Trapping Surfaces.- 2.5.3 Semiconductor/Metal Tandems.- Multilayer Absorbers.- 2.6 Radiative Cooling Materials.- 2.7 Transparent Low-Emittance Coatings.- 2.7.1 Multilayer Low-emittance Films.- 2.7.2 Highly Doped Semiconductor Films.- 2.7.3 MeshLow-emittance Coatings.- 2.8 Fluorescent Concentrators.- 2.9 Spectral Splitting and Cold Mirror Films.- 2.10 Transparent Aerogel and Polymeric Transparent Insulation.- 2.11 Optical Switching Materials and Devices.- 2.11.1 Photochromic Materials.- 2.11.2 Thermochromic Materials.- 2.11.3 Liquid Crystals.- 2.11.4. Electrochromic Materials and Devices.- 2.12 Prismatic Light Guides.- 2.13 Holographic Films.- 2.14 Conclusions.- 2.15 Acknowledgements.- 2.16 References.- 3 A Solar Hydrogen Energy System.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Nuclear Fission Based Energy Supply.- 3.1.2 Coal Based Energy Supply.- 3.1.3 Solar Energy as a General Energy Source.- 3.2 Available Solar Energy.- 3.2.1 Is Solar Energy a Dilute Source?.- 3.2.2 A History of the Concept of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy.- 3.2.3 Amount of Land Based Solar Energy Available.- 3.2.4 Other Areas Yielding Solar Energy.- 3.2.5 The Change in the Status of Solar Energy as a Main Source of Energy Due to the Introduction of Hydrogen as an Energy Medium.- 3.3 Direct Methods for Collecting Solar Energy.- 3.3.1 Solar Thermal Techniques.- 3.3.2 Photovoltaic Collection Systems.- 3.3.3 Photovoltaic Concentrator Systems.- 3.3.4 Environmental Effects of the Photovoltaic Systems.- 3.3.5 Other Collection Systems.- 3.4 Indirect Solar Energy Collection.- 3.4.1 Hydroelectric Potential in North America.- 3.4.2 Wind Energy Potential.- 3.4.3 Bioproduction of Hydrogen.- 3.5 Splitting of Water.- 3.5.1 Production of Hydrogen from Water.- 3.5.2 Other Approaches to the Splitting of Water.- 3.5.3 Novel Ideas in the Production of Hydrogen.- 3.6 Transmission of Hydrogen.- 3.6.1 Hydrogen Transport Through Pipelines Over Long Distances.- 3.6.2 Cost of Transmission of Hydrogen.- 3.6.3 Liquid Hydrogen Transmission Through Pipelines.- 3.6.4 Marine Transportation.- 3.6.5 Transport Through Sea Over Long Distances (Underwater Pipelines).- 3.6.6 Rail Transportation.- 3.6.7 Highway Transportation.- 3.6.8 Transportation in Cylinders and as Hydrides.- 3.7 Storage of Hydrogen.- 3.7.1 Pressure Cylinders.- 3.7.2 Above Ground Storage Tanks.- 3.7.3 Underground Storage of Hydrogen.- 3.7.4 Pipeline in Storage Systems.- 3.7.5 Hydrides.- 3.7.6 Microcavity Storage System.- 3.7.7 Zeolites.- 3.7.8 Storage by Conversion to Ammonia.- 3.7.9 Chemical Closed Loop Cycle.- 3.7.10 Metal-Aromatics and Transition Metal Complexes.- 3.7.11 Liquid Hydrogen.- 3.8 Present Uses of Hydrogen.- 3.8.1 Ammonia Synthesis.- 3.8.2 Synfuel Production.- 3.8.3 Petrochemical Industries.- 3.8.4 Chemical Industries.- 3.8.5 Fats and Oils.- 3.8.6 Pharmaceuticals.- 3.8.7 Metals Industries.- 3.8.8 Electronics.- 3.8.9 Float Glass.- 3.8.10 Total Small User Hydrogen Demand.- 3.9 Proposed Uses of Hydrogen.- 3.9.1 Space Research.- 3.9.2 Sub-orbital Aircraft.- 3.9.3 Hydrogen Use for Air Transportation.- 3.9.4 Hydrogen for Automotive Transportation.- 3.9.5 Hydrogen Powered Train.- 3.9.6 Other Uses.- 3.9.7 Residential Uses of Hydrogen.- 3.9.8 Hazards of Hydrogen.- 3.10 Projected Economics of Hydrogen Production.- 3.10.1 Relevant Time Scale.- 3.10.2 Fossil Fuels: The Economics of Pollution.- 3.10.3 Hydrogen from Coal.- 3.10.4 Electrolysis of Water.- 3.10.5 Hydrogen from Direct Solar Sources.- 3.10.6 Hydrogen from Indirect Solar Sources.- 3.10.7 Summary of Costs.- 3.11 References.- 4 Wind Technology Today.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Historical Summary.- 4.2 Analytical Design Theory.- 4.2.1 Predicting Wind Inflow.- 4.2.2 Aerodynamics.- 4.2.3 Predicting Structural Dynamic Loads.- 4.2.4 Yaw Dynamics.- 4.2.5 Wind Turbine Fatigue and Fatigue Models.- 4.2.6 Wind Turbine Safety and Reliability.- 4.3 Design Issues and Tradeoffs.- 4.3.1 Design Criteria.- 4.3.2 Rotor Design.- 4.3.3 Blade Number.- 4.3.4 Operation Strategy.- 4.3.5 Rotor Orientation.- 4.3.6 Hub Design and Blade Articulation.- Airfoil Selection and Design.- Blade Design.- 4.3.7 Drive Train Configuration.- 4.3.8 Electrical Power System.- Constant Speed Generators.- Variable-Speed Generators.- Mechanical Power Converters.- 4.4 Control Systems.- 4.4.1 Rotor Control.- 4.4.2 Electrical Control.- 4.4.3 System Control.- 4.4.4 Tower/Foundation Design.- 4.5 Current Wind Turbines and Their Performance.- 4.5.1 Commercial Wind Turbines.- Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs).- Small HAWTs.- Intermediate-Scale HAWTs.- Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines(VAWTs).- 4.6 Experimental and Research Wind Turbines.- 4.7 Performance of Current Systems.- 4.8 Design and Reliability Problems.- 4.8.1 Blade and Rotor Failure.- 4.9 Drive Train and Electrical Problems.- 4.10 Yaw Drive.- 4.11 Tower Failures.- 4.12 Wind Power Resources, Applications and Economics.- 4.12.1 Applications and Economics.- 4.13 Public Acceptance of Wind Power Development.- 4.13.1 Public Nuisance and Aesthetic Issues.- Visual Impact.- Noise Impact.- Acoustic Noise.- Electromagnetic Interference.- 4.14 Environmental Impact Issues.- 4.14.1 Land Use Issues.- 4.14.2 Impacts on Human Health and Biota.- 4.14.3 Impacts Compared to Other Energy Technologies.- 4.15 Current Research and Development Programs.- 4.15.1 Research in the United States.- 4.15.2 Research in Europe and Asia.- 4.15.3 Prospects for Wind Energy.- 4.16 Acknowledgements.- 4.17 References.- 5 Retrofit for Solar Heating and Cooling.- 5.1 Abstract.- 5.2 Introduction.- 5.3 Typical Retrofit Systems.- 5.3.1 System Classification.- 5.3.2 Active Systems.- 5.3.3 Passive Systems.- 5.4 The Housing Stock Suitable for Retrofit.- 5.5 The Potential for Saving Depletable Energy and Reducing Pollution.- 5.6 The Impact on Customers.- 5.7 The Technical Aspects.- 5.7.1 General Principles.- 5.7.2 Active Heating Systems.- 5.7.3 Passive Heating Systems.- 5.7.4 Active Cooling Systems.- 5.7.5 Passive Cooling Systems.- 5.8 Economics of Retrofit.- 5.9 Financing Methods.- 5.9.1 Single Family Homes.- 5.9.2 Commercial Buildings.- 5.10 Barriers and Incentives.- 5.10.1 Barriers.- 5.10.2 Incentives.- 5.11 Retrofit System Demonstrations and Performance Monitoring.- 5.12 Education and Technology Transfer.- 5.13 Research and Development Needs.- 5.13.1 Creation of a Data Base.- 5.13.2 System Priorities.- 5.13.3 Building Service Hot Water Initiative.- 5.13.4 Solar Collectors.- 5.13.5 Thermal Storage.- 5.13.6 Space Heating.- 5.13.7 Swimming Pools.- 5.13.8 Passive Systems.- 5.13.9 System Assembly.- 5.13.10 Solar Cooling.- 5.13.11 Instrumentation.- 5.13.12 The Demo


Advances in Solar Energy, now in its fifth year, is continuing with topics of the main field of solar energy conversion. However, because of the increasing interest in a solar systems approach, we have decided to include the article of Bockris et al., on Hydrogen Technology, which offers interesting aspects of transport and storage of solar energy, as well as the potential for a versatile fuel. The other articles cover the field of photovoltaics, solar energy-related mate­ rials, wind conversion, solar retrofitting of existing buildings, and new architectural designs in harmony with climate and the comfort of all occupants. These articles give a critical assessment of the present state of the art, and provide a long list of literature for further in-depth studies. I greatly appreciate the assistance of the Editors and referees of the articles for their many constructive suggestions. My special thanks go to Ms. Martha Hobbs for her dedicated work in typesetting the manuscript in the University of Delaware's Publication Office, and to the University of Delaware for their continued support. The accommodating help from Plenum Press and its production staff deserves our grateful acknowledgement.

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Condizione: Nuovo
Collana: Advances in Solar Energy
Dimensioni: 244 x 170 mm Ø 808 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 470

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