This textbook provides an introduction to the interdisciplinary study of stress, helping students and professionals understand the main neurobiological and psychological causes and consequences of stress in human beings. It’s aimed at understanding the concept of stress at different levels, from the impact of environmental stressors to its processing in the brain, and from the neural mechanisms involved in this processing to the expression of different adaptive responses. All these neural mechanisms are clearly explained according to different levels of complexity, from the neurobiological level, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms, to the psychological level, including the cognitive and emotional processing, and behavioral expressions.
The whole content is described in a very comprehensive manner, accompanied with descriptive graphics to clearly illustrate every detail, therefore allowing a full integration of all the covered concepts. In addition, clinical expressions of stress, such as mood and anxiety disorders, are also covered in detail, including an overview of different factors of vulnerability and resilience, therefore providing a unique and fundamental insight of this interdisciplinary field.
Given its interdisciplinary approach, Neuroscience of Stress: From Neurobiology to Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Sciences will provide a comprehensive and clear introduction to the study of stress to students and professionals from different fields of the behavioral and health sciences. It will serve as a valuable text for adoption in classes of a wide range of graduate courses dealing with mental health and well-being, in areas such as health and clinical psychology, health promotion and disease prevention, psychiatry and behavioral medicine, among others.
Chapter 1: Stress: Historical perspective and evolution of the concept
Stress in daily life: stressors and adaptive responses
The good and the bad: eustress, distress and learned helplessnessAcute and chronic stress: the road map to trauma or resilience
Chronic stress and disease: homeostasis, allostasis, and allostatic load
Chapter 2: Neurobiological approach to stress
Stress from the environment to the brain
Neural structures and neurotransmitters involved in adaptive responses to stress
Psychoneurobiology of the limbic system: amygdala and hippocampus
Neurocircuitry and psychoneurobiology of the prefrontal cortex
The raphe nuclei and the serotonergic system
The reward system and dopaminergic pathways
The locus coeruleus and the noradrenergic systemActivation and regulation of the sympatho-adrenergic system
The role of neurotrophic factors: neuroplasticity and neurogenesis
Brief introduction to molecular genetics and transcriptional regulationRegulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
Molecular biology of the HPA axis: hormones and receptors
Chapter 3: Psychological approach to stress
Environmental stressors: perception and working memory
Cognitive processing of stress: appraisal and coping
The role of cognitive and emotional resources
Stress, trauma and resilience: cognition and emotionDeveloping controllability: the road map to resilience
Stress in early periods of life: vunerability or controllability
Chapter 4: Clinical approach to stress:The role of stress in the development of fear and anxiety
Stress, anxiety and the development of anxiety disorders
The psychoneurobiological bases of fear and anxietyThe amygdala and the fear circuit in the brain
Neurobiology of innate fear programming
Neurobiology of fear conditioning
The role of the amygdala and the BNST in the regulation of the HPA axis
The role of the hypothalamic PVN in the regulation of the HPA axis
The role of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the regulation of the ANS
The role of the Locus Coeruleus and the noradrenergic system in stress
The role of the Raphe Nuclei and the Serotonergic system in Stress
The role of the reward pathway and the Dopaminergic system in Stress
The role of stress in the development of depression
Genetic Vulnerability: the role of polymorphisms
Inflammatory processes: the role of cytokines
Psychological vulnerability: Stress, appraisal and coping
Stress in early periods of life and its long term effects
Neurobiological circuits of vulnerability and resilienceChapter 5: Integrative approach to stress
Cognitive and neurobiological integration of stress and resilience
Psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology: the “Roseta Stone” of stress
Gustavo E. Tafet received his MD from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and is also a Specialist in Psychiatry. He holds a PhD in medicine from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, a MSc from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, a PhD in psychology from the Maimonides University, Argentina, and also has conducted postdoctoral research at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.
He founded the Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences of the Maimonides University, Argentina, where he was professor and chairman from 2001 to 2021. During this period he created the postgraduate programs in psychiatry and neurosciences, where he was director and full professor of psychiatry and neurobiology. Dr. Tafet is also voluntary assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Miami, USA; visiting professor of psychopharmacology at the University of Catania, Italy; visiting professor of psychiatry at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain, and professor of psychoneuroendocrinology at the Catholic University of Uruguay.
Dr. Tafet is president of the International Foundation for the Development of Neurosciences, secretary of the Section of Psychoneuroendocrinology of the World Psychiatric Association; founder and president of the Section of Neurosciences of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists; president of the committee for international affairs of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists; fellow of the American Psychiatric Association; fellow of the International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology, member of the American College of Psychiatrists, member of the European Psychiatric Association, and member of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology.