Introduction To Food Process Engineering - Smith P. G. | Libro Springer 02/2011 - HOEPLI.it


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smith p. g. - introduction to food process engineering

Introduction to Food Process Engineering




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Dettagli

Genere:Libro
Lingua: Inglese
Editore:

Springer

Pubblicazione: 02/2011
Edizione: 2nd ed. 2011





Sommario

Preface 1 An introduction to food process engineering 2 Dimensions, quantities and units 2.1 Dimensions and units 2.2 Definitions of some basic physical quantities 2.2.1 Velocity and speed 2.2.2 Acceleration 2.2.3 Force and momentum 2.2.4 Weight 2.2.5 Pressure 2.2.6 Work and energy 2.2.7 Power 2.3 Dimensional analysis 2.3.1 Dimensional consistency 2.3.2 Dimensional analysis 3 Thermodynamics and equilibrium 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Temperature and the zeroth law of thermodynamics 3.1.2 Temperature scale 3.1.3 Heat, work and enthalpy 3.1.4 Other definitions 3.2 The gaseous phase 3.2.1 Kinetic theory of gases 3.2.2 Perfect gases 3.2.3 Pure component vapour pressure 3.2.4 Partial pressure and pure component volume 3.3 The liquid-vapour transition 3.3.1 Vaporisation and condensation 3.3.2 Isotherms and critical temperature 3.3.3 Definition of gas and vapour 3.3.4 Vapour-liquid equilibrium 3.4 First law of thermodynamics 3.5 Heat capacity 3.5.1 Heat capacity at constant volume 3.5.2 Heat capacity at constant pressure 3.5.3 The relationship between heat capacities for a perfect gas 3.5.4 The pressure, volume, temperature relationship for gases 3.6 Second law of thermodynamics 3.6.1 The heat pump and refrigeration 3.6.2 Consequences of the second law 4 Material and energy balances 4.1 Process analysis 4.2 Material balances 4.2.1 Overall material balances 4.2.2 Concentration and composition 4.2.3 Component material balances 4.2.4 Recycle and by-pass 4.3 The steady-flow energy equation 4.4 Thermochemical data 4.4.1 Heat capacity 4.4.2 Latent heat of vaporisation 4.4.3 Latent heat of fusion 4.4.4 Steam tables 4.5 Energy balances 5 The fundamentals of rate processes 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Heat transfer 5.3 Momentum transfer 5.4 Mass transfer 5.5 Transport properties 5.5.1 Thermal conductivity 5.5.2 Viscosity 5.5.3 Diffusivity 5.6 Similarities between heat, momentum and mass transfer 6 The flow of food fluids 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Fundamental principles 6.2.1 Velocity and flow rate 6.2.2 Reynolds’ experiment 6.2.3 Principle of continuity 6.2.4 Conservation of energy 6.3 Laminar flow in a pipeline 6.4 Turbulent flow in a pipeline 6.5 Pressure measurement and fluid metering 6.5.1 The manometer 6.5.2 The orifice meter 6.5.3 The venturi meter 6.6. Pumping of liquids 6.6.1 The centrifugal pump 6.6.2 Positive displacement pumps 6.6.3 Net positive suction head 6.6.4 Hygienic design 6.7 Non-Newtonian flow 6.7.1 Introduction 6.7.2 Stress, strain and flow 6.8 Time-independent rheological models 6.8.1 Hookean solids 6.8.2 Newtonian fluids 6.8.3 Bingham fluids 6.8.4 The power law 6.8.5 Laminar flow of power law fluids 6.8.6 Other time-independent models 6.9 Time-dependent rheological models 6.10 Visco-elasticity 6.10.1 Introduction 6.10.2 Mechanical analogues 6.11 Rheological measurements 6.11.1 Measurement of dynamic viscosity 6.11.2 Rheological measurements for non-Newtonian fluids 7 Heat processing of foods 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Conduction 7.2.1 Steady-state conduction in a uniform slab 7.2.2 Conduction in a composite slab 7.2.3 Radial conduction 7.2.4 Conduction in a composite cylinder 7.2.5 Conduction through a spherical shell 7.3 Convection 7.3.1 Film heat transfer coefficient 7.3.2 Simultaneous convection and conduction 7.3.3 Radial convection 7.3.4 Critical thickness of insulation 7.3.5 Correlations for film heat transfer coefficients 7.3.6 Overall heat transfer coefficient 7.4 Heat exchangers 7.4.1 Types of industrial heat exchanger 7.4.2 Sizing of heat exchangers 7.5 Boiling and condensation 7.5.1 Boiling heat transfer 7.5.2 Condensation 7.6 Heat transfer to non-Newtonian fluids 7.7 Principles of radiation 7.7.1 Absorption, reflection and transmission 7.7.2 Black body radiation 7.7.3 Emissivity and real surfaces 7.7.4 Radiative heat transfer 7.7.5 View factors 7.8 Microwave heating of foods 7.8.1 Microwaves 7.8.2 Generation of microwaves 7.8.3 Energy conversion and heating rate 7.8.4 Microwave ovens and industrial plant 7.8.5 Advantages and applications of microwave heating 7.9 Temperature measurement 7.9.1 Principles of temperature measurement 7.9.1 Expansion thermometers 7.9.3 Electrical methods 7.9.4 Radiation pyrometry 8 Mass Transfer 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Molecular diffusion 8.2.1 Fick’s law 8.2.2 Diffusivity 8.2.3 Concentration 8.3 Convective mass transfer 8.3.1 Whitman's theory 8.3.2 Film mass transfer coefficients 8.3.3 Overall mass transfer coefficients 8.3.4 Addition of film mass transfer coefficients 8.3.5 Resistances to mass transfer in food processing 8.3.6 Effect of solubility on mass transfer coefficients 8.3.7 Alternative units for mass transfer coefficients 8.3.8 Units of Henry's constant 8.4 Binary diffusion 8.4.1 General diffusion equation 8.4.2 Other forms of the general diffusion equation 8.4.3 Diffusion through a stagnant gas film 8.4.4 Particles, droplets and bubbles 8.5 Correlations for mass transfer coefficients 8.6 Mass transfer and food packaging 9 Psychrometry 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Definitions of some basic quantities 9.2.1 Absolute humidity 9.2.2 Saturated humidity 9.2.3 Percentage saturation 9.2.4 Relative humidity 9.2.5 Relationship between percentage saturation and relative humidity 9.2.6 Humid heat 9.2.7 Humid volume 9.2.8 Dew point 9.3 Wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures 9.3.1 Definitions 9.3.2 The wet bulb equation 9.3.3 Adiabatic saturation temperature 9.3.4 Relationship between wet bulb temperature and adiabatic saturation temperature 9.4 The psychrometric chart 9.4.1 Principles 9.4.2 Mixing of humid air streams 9.5 Application of psychrometry to drying 10 Thermal processing of foods 10.1 Unsteady-state heat transfer 10.1.1 Introduction 10.1.2 The Biot number 10.1.3 Lumped analysis 10.2 Unsteady-state conduction 10.2.1 Fourier’s first law of conduction 10.2.2 Conduction in a flat plate 10.2.3 The Fourier number 10.2.4 Gurney-Lurie charts 10.2.5 Heisler charts 10.3 Food preservation techniques using heat 10.3.1 Introduction to thermal processing 10.3.2 Pasteurisation 10.3.3 Commercial sterilisation 10.4 Kinetics of microbial death 10.4.1 Decimal reduction time and thermal resistance constant 10.4.2 Process lethality 10.4.3 Spoilage probability 10.5 The general method 10.6 The mathematical method 10.6.1 Introduction 10.6.2 The procedure to find total process time 10.6.3 Heat transfer in thermal processing 10.6.4 Integrated value 10.7 Retorts for thermal processing 10.7.1 The batch retort 10.7.2 Design variations 10.7.3 Continuous retorts 10.8 Continuous flow sterilisation 10.8.1 Principles of UHT processing 10.8.2 Process description 11 Low temperature preservation 11.1 Principles of low temperature preservation 11.2 Freezing rate and freezing point 11.3 The frozen state 11.3.1 Physical properties of frozen food 11.3.2 Food quality during frozen storage 11.4 Freezing equipment 11.4.1 Plate freezer 11.4.2 Blast freezer 11.4.3 Fluidised bed freezer 11.4.4 Scraped surface freezer 11.4.5 Cryogenic and immersion freezing 11.5 Prediction of freezing time 11.5.1 Plank’s equation 11.5.2 Nagaoka’s equation 11.5.3 Stefan’s model 11.5.4 Plank’s equation for brick-shaped objects 11.6 Thawing 11.7 Principles of vapour compression refrigeration 11.7.1 Introduction 11.7.2 The refrigerant 11.7.3 The evaporator 11.7.4 The compressor 11.7.5 The condenser 11.7.6 The valve or nozzle 11.7.7 The refrigeration cycle 12 Evaporation and drying 12.1 Introduction to evaporation 12.2 Equipment for evaporation 12.2.1 Natural circulation evaporators 12.2.2 Forced circulation evaporators 12.2.3 Thin film evaporators 12.3 Sizing of a single effect evaporator 12.3.1 Material and energy balances 12.3.2 Evaporator efficiency 12.3.3 Boiling point elevation 12.4 Methods of improving evaporator efficiency 12.4.1 Vapour recompression 12.4.2 Multiple effect evaporation 12.4.3 An example of multiple effect evaporation: the concentration of tomato juice 12.5 Sizing of multiple effect evaporators 12.6 Drying 12.6.1 Introduction 12.6.2 Water activity 12.6.3 Effect of water activi




Trama

This is a new book on food process engineering which treats the principles of processing in a scientifically rigorous yet concise manner, and which can be used as a lead in to more specialized texts for higher study. It is equally relevant to those in the food industry who desire a greater understanding of the principles of the food processes with which they work. This text is written from a quantitative and mathematical perspective and is not simply a descriptive treatment of food processing. The aim is to give readers the confidence to use mathematical and quantitative analyses of food processes and most importantly there are a large number of worked examples and problems with solutions. The mathematics necessary to read this book is limited to elementary differential and integral calculus and the simplest kind of differential equation.








Altre Informazioni

ISBN:

9781441976611

Condizione: Nuovo
Collana: Food Science Text Series
Dimensioni: 254 x 178 mm Ø 2490 gr
Formato: Copertina rigida
Pagine Arabe: 510
Pagine Romane: xvii






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