This book reflects on the growing appetite for plurality in management knowledge that addresses the problems important to business and society. Over the last three decades, India’s rapid economic growth has helped to make it a leading economy of the world. The social and cultural setting of India is unique because of its diversity, large population, and social and economic stratification. India is a living culture of more than three thousand years that simultaneously embraces traditional and contemporary beliefs and practices. From world trade to climate change to democratization, India’s actions have a global impact. Reviewing management literature in the Indian context, this book attempts explaining and addressing the problems important to business and society. This book has three primary aims: to identify and describe the insights from traditional culture of India relevant to management, to report on the Indian institutional dynamics and its reflection on management and to present pedagogical initiatives that integrate the wisdom of Indian culture and tradition with contemporary management knowledge. In light of these objectives, this book will be relevant to management scholars, educators, and practitioners, particularly in the areas of organizational behavior, human resource management, strategic management, marketing, entrepreneurship, and international management.
Introductory Chapter: This chapter will explain the need for this volume, structure and flow of the proposed contents. It will also pre-set the underlining structure of the handbook and that of followed in most of the chapters.
All chapters (apart from the Introductory and Last) will be written along a given framework to ensure consistency and thoroughness. Where possible, the core themes of the framework will include: a) Focus of the chapter (including expected learning); b) Historical developments of the topic, including what is unique/indigenous about it, c) Core aspects of the topic/ key constructs covered under the topic, d) How the topic/construct(s) of the chapter be applied in modern day organisations operating in India; e) Confirmation of the eligibility of the same (e.g., by getting feedback from a senior and relevant practitioner), f) List of further reading: g) List of any relevant websites or case studies, video, etc, h) References
The first section of the handbook is drawn from the prominent schools of Darshans or philosophy of Indian tradition. The most widely accepted classification of Indian philosophy accepts six Astika darshanas and three prominent Nastika Darshanas. Six Astik Darshanas (Sad-darshanas) accept the transcendental reality and thus accepts the Vedas as eternal and infallible exist since the pre-Buddhist era (i.e. prior to 6th century BC). These are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimansa and Vedanta. The Buddhist, Jain and the Charvaka darshanas are called Nastika Darshanas, since they don’t admit of (or don’t need to or care to admit of) the Vedas as eternal and infallible and are classified as heterodox systems.
Chapter 1: Nature of Human Self, Role of Work and Place in Nature of Human Being: Indian Worldview and its Implications for Management Practices and Scholarship (Author: Ashish Pandey, Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)Worldview is the philosophical outlook that a person, knowingly or not, utilizes to organize his or her belief system and activities (Theilmen, 2008). A worldview comprises of culturally organized and inter-related macro thoughts that organize much of the body of symbolic creations and ethnophilosophy among many other epistemic and ontological stances. This chapter will aim at deciphering the Indian worldview by elaborating the nature of human self, goals of human life and the role of work in the human life subscribed in the Indian traditional wisdom and their theoretical implications on management theories and practices.
Chapter 2: Concepts in Indian Culture and Wisdom Traditions and Positive Organizational Processes and Scholarship (Author: Dharam P. Bhawuk, University of Hawaii, Manoa)Indian psychology is an approach to psychology based on the Indian ethos, the characteristic spirit of the Indian civilization (Dalal and Mishra, 2010). One could also say that it is a psychology rooted in the Indian worldview, yoga and a life-affirming spirituality. The field of Indian psychology unravels many positive aspects of human nature and its manifestations at the work place. In the wake of technological advancement and globalizations in business organizations, the performance is coming at the cost and with the growing prevalence of stress, environmental degradation and meaninglessness. The positive psychology is offering a wealth of solutions to our modern challenges related to organizations and their management. Indian psychology can offer distinct and a fresh perspective and wide range of interventions for organizations and its members. In particular, the focus of the chapter will be on virtues derived from the Bhagavad-Gita, which constitute the foundation of all values and a rich theoretical frameworks for what is now popular as positive psychology in the West, without ignoring the values that should be rooted out while cultivating those virtues that inspire us individually and are good for the collective at all levels, namely, dyad, small group, organisations, societies, nations, and global.
Chapter 3: Karma-Yoga: The Indian Philosophy of Moral Development and Work Motivation (Authors: Zubin Mulla, TISS and Venkat Krishnan, Centre for Oneness & Transforming Leadership, Chainnai, erstwhile Professor XLRI Great Lakes)According to the Indian worldview, Karma-Yoga is the technique of intelligently performing actions and forms the basis of deciding the moral worth of an action. Moreover, Karma-Yoga explains a distinct motivation for action based on one’s duty towards others (Mulla and Krishnan, 2014). In this chapter we describe the beliefs which sustain and explain Karma-Yoga; the operationalization of Karma-Yoga in the Indian work context; and locate this variable in relationship with other work-related correlates and outcomes. This chapter will then focus on future research possibilities in exploring this construct further for the benefit of individuals and organizations in India and worldwide.
Chapter 4: Understanding Self and Wellbeing based on Ayurveda – Implications for Indian Management (Authors: Mala Kapadia, Vaidya Gram and S.P Jain Global School)Most of the existing personality models are based on mental or psychological aspects alone. However, personality can be understood better in a holistic way; as an integrated whole of physical, emotional and intellectual aspects. Traditional Ayurvedic literature provides a thorough description of physiology and personality types using the notion of Vata, Pitta and Kapha and ways of their assessment (Patwardhan, 2012). At the physiological level our tissues are mainly Kapha, the digestive system is mainly pitta and nervous system is mainly Vata. Vata governs sensory, emotional and mental harmony. Pitta governs our intelligence and qualities like courage and vitality whereas Kapha endows with psychological stability, qualities of love and caring and relations with others. These insights have strong practical applications. Accordingly, the focus of this chapter will be on an elaboration of understanding self and wellbeing based on Ayurveda and its implication on behaviour at workplace, productivity of human resources, leadership, emotional intelligence, conflict handling etc.
Chapter 5: Triguna Research in Indian Psychology: Philosophical Reconstruction, Implication for Management Practice and Directions (Author: Alok Kumar, XLRI, Jamshedpur)Indian psychology has leveraged several systems of Indian philosophy to base its scientific enquiry. Sa?khya - the oldest known system of Indian philosophy - has been commonly leveraged to develop Indian accounts of personality. This research has focused on the idea of trigu?a - three constituents so to speak that variously interact to produce the manifest world (e.g. Marutham, Balodhi, & Mishra, 1998). This chapter contends that this line of enquiry has deviated from the original philosophy of Sa?khya. Accordingly, the focus of this chapter will be on philosophical reconstruction of the idea of trigu?a as used in Indian psychological research on personality. It will show that it makes greater sense to study personality at the level of bhava rather than trigu?a as such. Bhava are trigu?a effects of a certain kind manifest as cognitive dispositions. Further, it will highlight implications of the resulting insights for important organizational behaviour constructs such as motivation, leadership, and mindfulness.
Chapter 6: Madhyam Marg: A Conceptual and Epistemic Tool for Understanding Indian Mind and Practice (Author: Minati Panda, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi)
Madhyam Marg could
Ashish Pandey, Associate Professor, with Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management in Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, has more than 30 research articles in the leading journals and handbooks in the areas of spirituality at work, yoga and mindfulness in OB, interface of business and society.
Pawan Budhwar is Head of Aston Business School, UK, and the Co Editor-in- Chief of Human Resource Management Journal. He is the co-founder and first president of Indian Academy of Management. He has published over 150 articles in leading journals and written and/or co-edited over 25 books.
Dharm P S Bhawuk, Professor of Management and Culture and Community Psychology, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, USA, has published more than 100 papers and books including Cambridge Handbook of Intercultural Training (2020), Indian Psychology: Lessons from the Bhagavad-Gita (2011), and Asian Contributions to Cross-Cultural Psychology (1996).