Geomorphology - Gutierrez Mateo | Libro Crc Press 01/2012 -

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Lingua: Inglese

CRC Press

Pubblicazione: 01/2012
Edizione: 1° edizione

Note Editore

This book provides a detailed coverage of the landforms of Planet Earth and the processes that shaped them. The study of these morphologies, some of which formed during past geological periods under environmental conditions very different from those of today, makes it possible to reconstruct the evolution of relief and to infer environmental changes that have involved geological media, the climate, or human activity. A major advance of Geomorphology in recent decades is the development of techniques that make it possible to quantify morphogenetic processes and rates at which forms change under different environmental conditions. The development of Geochronology, or absolute dating methods, is helping us correct the limitations of relative dating that have prevailed in Geomorphology for many years. The ability to assign numerical ages to both landforms and deposits opens up multiple possibilities for reconstructing the evolution of relief, making correlations, calculating rates, and estimating recurrence periods. A theme of major concern facing people today is the possible warming of the planet due to the release of greenhouse gases into the environment. Investigations conducted by the scientific community show that this temperature increase is at least partially anthropogenic. Given this more-than-probable cause and effect relationship, the most sensible and prudent path is to design and apply mitigation measures to alleviate this heating that can negatively affect both the natural environment and human society. The information that Geomorphology can provide on the recent past (Historical Geomorphology) may be very useful in making predictions on the activity of these potentially dangerous processes in the future and on the possible effects of environmental changes. The aim of this book is to provide a general vision of the multiple aspects of Geomorphology and to provide a methodological foundation to approach the study of various branches of geomorphology. To this end, the book contains a basic bibliography that can be used for future research. In addition, applied aspects of Geomorphology are covered at the end of each chapter to provide knowledge of the activities of geomorphologists in the professional world.


PREFACE 1 GEOMORPHOLOGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 HISTORY OF GEOMORPHOLOGY Geomorphology prior to the 20th century Models of landscape evolution Geomorphology in the first half of the 20th century Process geomorphology Reconstruction of geomorphic history: Geochronology 1.3 GEOMORPHIC SYSTEMS 1.4 GEOMORPHIC CONCEPTS 1.5 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES 1.6 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY 1.7 STRUCTURE OF GEOMORPHOLOGY 2 STRUCTURAL GEOMORPHOLOGY 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 2.3 COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH 2.4 LITHOSPHERE AND ASTHENOSPHERE 2.5 ISOSTASY 2.6 PRECURSORS OF GLOBAL TECTONICS 2.7 PLATE TECTONICS 2.8 STRUCTURAL LANDFORMS 2.9 PSEUDO-STRUCTURAL LANDFORMS 3 TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 GEOMORPHIC MARKERS Planar geomorphic markers Linear geomorphic markers 3.3 DATING METHODS Relative dating methods Absolute dating methods 3.4 TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGY TECHNIQUES Cartography of paleoseismic regions Cartography of paleoseismic stratigraphy Geophysical techniques in paleoseismology Archeological techniques Geodetic techniques Other techniques 3.5 DEFORMATION OF LANDFORMS Geomorphic indices of tectonic activity The fluvial system and tectonic geomorphology Uplift, subsidence, and earthquakes in fluvial systems Deformation in colluvial and fluvial deposits Deformation in littoral and lacustrine environments 3.6 SEISMIC RISK 3.7 PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND WARNING 3.8 HUMAN-INDUCED EARTHQUAKES 4 VOLCANIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 PLATE TECTONICS AND VOLCANISM 4.3 MAGMA AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY 4.4 TYPES OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY 4.5 PRINCIPAL TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Icelandic eruptions Hawaiian eruptions Strombolian eruptions Vulcanian eruptions Vesuvian eruptions Peleean eruptions Plinian eruptions 4.6 NUÉES ARDENTES AND PYROCLASTIC FLOWS 4.7 HYDROVOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Sub-aqueous eruptions Phreatic eruptions Sub-glacial eruptions 4.8 ROCK AVALANCHES AND LAHARS 4.9 GASEOUS OR HYDROTHERMAL ERUPTIONS 4.10 LAVA FLOWS Basalt flows Acid lava flows 4.11 PYROCLASTICS Pyroclastic fall deposits Pyroclastic surges Pyroclastic flows 4.12 VOLCANO MORPHOLOGY Volcanoes that erupt basic lava Volcanoes that erupt acidic lava 4.13 PYROCLASTIC CONES 4.14 STRATOVOLCANOES 4.15 CALDERAS 4.16 VOLCANIC LANDFORMS RESULTINGFROM EROSION 4.17 VOLCANIC RISK AND PREDICTION 5 WEATHERING AND RESULTING LANDFORMS 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 TYPES OF WEATHERING PROCESSES Physical weathering Sheeting Gelifraction Insolation weathering Weathering by wetting and drying Salt weathering Biological weathering Chemical weathering Weathering of silicates Degrees of weathering and weathering products Weathering profile Weathering depth Weathering zones Weathering rates 5.3 RESULTANT WEATHERING FORMS 5.4 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WEATHERING Weathering processes and products Supergene mineral ores and placers Regolith characteristics: Implications for engineering geology Weathering of monuments Weathering of sandstones in various climatic environments 6 KARST GEOMORPHOLOGY 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 CARBONATE DISSOLUTION 6.3 SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIMESTONES: KARREN 6.4 DOLINES/SINKHOLES Solution sinkholes Collapse sinkholes 6.5 POLJES 6.6 KARST VALLEYS AND SPRINGS 6.7 ENDOKARST Principal factors in cave formation Limestone type and structure Type and amount of water flow Physiographic and climatic factors Some cave types 6.8 CAVE DEPOSITS 6.9 TYPES OF KARST AND THE ROLE OF CLIMATE 6.10 EVAPORITE KARST Evaporite dissolution Karst landforms in evaporites 6.11 KARST RISKS, APPLICATIONS AND USES 7 SLOPES AND MASS MOVEMENT 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 SLOPE SHAPES 7.3 TYPES OF MASS MOVEMENTS Falls and rockfalls Topples Landslides Rotational landslides (slumps) Translational landslides Lateral spreading Lateral spreading in rocks Lateral spreading in soils and detritus Sackung Flows Complex mass movements Rock avalanches Flow slides Large gravitational landslides7.4 FACTORS THAT CONTROL MASS MOVEMENTS 7.5 LANDSLIDE RISK: CASE HISTORIES 7.6 LANDSLIDE PREDICTION AND MITIGATION 8 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY I 8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY 8.3 THE FLUVIAL SYSTEM—CONCEPT OF A HYDROSYSTEM 8.4 MORPHOMETRY OF A RIVER BASIN 8.5 HYDRAULICS OF FLUID FLOW 8.6 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT 8.7 FLUVIAL EROSION 8.8 LONGITUDINAL PROFILE, BASE LEVEL, AND STREAM CAPTURE 8.9 FLUVIAL CHANNEL SYSTEMS 8.10 STABILITY OF FLUVIAL CHANNELS 8.11 METAMORPHOSIS OF RIVERS 9 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY II 9.1 FLUVIAL SEDIMENTATION 9.2 FLOODPLAINS 9.3 ALLUVIAL FANS Definition, prior work, and terminology Alluvial fan morphology Factors that control alluvial fan development Sedimentary processes Sediment supply processes Reworking processes Dynamics and evolution of alluvial fan development 9.4 FLUVIAL TERRACES 9.5 LARGE RIVERS 9.6 FLOODING Introduction Types of floods Causes and factors that intensify flooding Magnitude and frequency of flooding Mapping of flood risk areas Paleohydrology 9.7 FLOOD RISK Flood risk in Spain Two catastrophic floods: Barranco de Arás (Huesca, 1996) and the Riada del Júcar (Valencia, 1982) 9.8 FLOOD PREVENTION AND MITIGATION 10 EOLIAN GEOMORPHOLOGY 10.1 EOLIAN PROCESSES 10.2 ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EOLIAN PARTICLES 10.3 EOLIAN PARTICLE MOVEMENT 10.4 TYPES OF EOLIAN TRANSPORT 10.5 RIPPLES 10.6 EOLIAN EROSION AND RESULTING LANDFORMS Ventifacts Yardangs Deflation basins 10.7 EOLIAN ACCUMULATIONS 10.8 FACTORS CONTROLLING ERG DEVELOPMENT 10.9 DUNE PROCESSES 10.10 DUNE CLASSIFICATION Transverse dunes Linear dunes Pyramidal and network dunes Sand sheets and zibars Dunes anchored by vegetation Topographically anchored dunes 10.11 DESERT DUST General characteristics Source area and generating processes Entrainment, transport and sedimentation Geomorphic implications Loess 10.12 WIND RISK: PROBLEMS AND CONTROL 11 COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY 11.1 INTRODUCTION 11.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY 11.3 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES 11.4 SEA LEVEL VARIATIONS Causes of sea level changes Holocene eustatic changes and future predictions 11.5 WAVES, CURRENTS, AND TIDES 11.6 CLIFF COASTS AND ROCKY PLATFORMS 11.7 CORAL REEF COASTS 11.8 BEACHES, BARRIERS, AND SPITS 11.9 COASTAL DUNES 11.10 MUDFLATS, SALT MARSHES, AND MANGROVES 11.11 ESTUARIES AND DELTAS 11.12 COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS: USES, MANAGEMENT, AND RISKS 12 CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 12.1 INTRODUCTION 12.2 THE BEGINNINGS OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 12.3 THE STRUCTURE OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 12.4 THE EVOLUTION OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 12.5 APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS 12.6 CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY: PROCESSES AND MORPHOCLIMATIC DIFFERENTIATION 12.7 THE CONCEPT OF ZONATION IN CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY 12.8 PRINCIPAL MORPHOCLIMATIC ZONES 13 GLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY I 13.1 GLACIERS Introduction Present and past extent of glaciers Mass balance in glaciers: Accumulation and ablation Transformation of snow into ice Glacier classification Thermal classification Morphological classification Glacier movement Glacier structures 13.2 GLACIAL EROSION Erosional processes Types of processes Landforms produced by glacial erosion Striations, grooves, and glacial polish Friction cracks and p-shapes Roches moutonnées and other landforms Cirques Glacial valleys Glacial landforms in low relief regions Fjords 14 GLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY II 14.1 GLACIAL TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION Glacial supply and environments Mechanics of glacial deposition Till characteristics Landforms resulting from glacial deposition 14.2 FLUVIOGLACIAL EROSIONAND SEDIMENTATION Meltwater Landforms resulting from fluvioglacial erosion Landforms resulting from fluvioglacial deposition 14.3 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY IN GLACIAL REGIONS Introduction Risks caused by ice mass activity Icebergs Ice avalanches Glacier-dammed lakes Volcanism and glaciers Problems caused by glaciotectonics Geological engineering considerations for non-glaciated areas Placer deposits in glacial environments15 PERIGLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY 15.1 THE PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENT Introduction Permafrost characteristics Periglacial processes Frost action Chemica


Mateo Gutiérrez Elorza, Emeritus Professor of Geomorphology at the Science Faculty of Zaragoza Universityserved asvice-director of the Teruel University College and managed post-doctoral courses in the Sao Paolo University (USP-Brazil) and San Juan University (Argentine). He was the First President of the Spanish Society of Geomorphology (1987-1990), and he is currently Corresponding Academic of the Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid (since 1992) andmember of the Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas, Quimicas y Naturales de Zaragoza (since 1996). Professor Gutiérrez was member of the IAG Executive Committee (2001-2005) and the main organizer of the 6th International Conference of Geomorphology held in Zaragoza (2005). He has published four books: Geomorfologia de España (1994), Rueda. Madrid; Geomorfología Climática (2001), Omega, Barcelona; Climatic Geomorphology (2005), Elsevier, Amsterdam;and Geomorfología (2008) Pearson/Prentice Hall. He is also the author of more than 200 papers in journals of the SCI and other publications. His scientific work is mainly focused on karst and geomorphology in arid regions.

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 11 x 8.5 in Ø 6.33 lb
Formato: Brossura
Illustration Notes:500 b/w images and 500 color images
Pagine Arabe: 1014

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