Fermented Beverage Production - Lea Andrew G.H. (Curatore); Piggott John R. (Curatore) | Libro Springer 06/2003 - HOEPLI.it

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lea andrew g.h. (curatore); piggott john r. (curatore) - fermented beverage production

Fermented Beverage Production


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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 06/2003
Edizione: 2nd ed. 2003


Fermented Beverage Production, Second Edition is an essential resource for any company producing or selling fermented alcoholic beverages. In addition it would be of value to anyone who needs a contemporary introduction to the science and technology of alcoholic beverages. This authoritative volume provides an up-to-date, practical overview of fermented beverage production, focusing on concepts and processes pertinent to all fermented alcoholic beverages, as well as those specific to a variety of individual beverages. The second edition features three new chapters on sparkling wines, rums, and Latin American beverages such as tequila, as well as thorough updating of information on new technologies and current scientific references.


1 Production of Fermentable Extracts from Cereals and Fruits.- Structure of Cereals.- Grain Development.- The Cereal Endosperm.- Cereal Storage Polymers.- Starch.- Amylose.- Amylopectins.- Starch Granules.- Starch Lipids.- Storage Proteins.- Cereal Lipids.- Cereal Cell Walls.- Basic Structure.- Glucans and Celluloses.- Hemicelluloses.- MALTING.- Outline of Barley Malting.- Changes in Barley Cell-Wall Components During Malting.- Changes in Endosperm Proteins.- Changes in Starch.- Depolymerization Activities During Mashing.- The Biochemistry of Mashing.- Depolymerization of Starch Polymers.- Cell-Wall Degradation.- Protein and Nucleic Acid Solubilization and Breakdown.- Lipid Extraction During Mashing.- Continued Activities During Distillery Fermentation.- Degradation of Branched Dextrins.- Formation of Ethyl Carbamate.- Multiple Parallel Fermentation.- Fruits as Raw Materials.- Fruit Juices and Their Composition.- Fruit Pulping.- Implications of Processing Certain Fruits.- REFERENCES.- 2 Alcoholic Beverage Fermentations.- YEAST.- PHYSIOLOGY OF YEAST GROWTH.- Nutritional Requirements.- Carbohydrate Utilization.- Uptake of Glucose.- Glucose and the Uptake of Maltose.- Glucose and the Uptake of Sucrose.- Utilization of Nitrogen Sources.- Ethanol Fermentation.- PRODUCTION OF FLAVOR COMPOUNDS.- Higher Alcohols.- Organic Acids.- Esters.- Carbonyl Compounds.- Malo-lactic Fermentation.- Sulphur Compounds.- REFERENCES.- 3 Beers: Recent Technological Innovations in Brewing.- THE TRADITIONAL BREWING PROCESS.- Raw Materials.- Wort Production.- Wort Fermentation and Maturation.- NEW TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONS.- Raw Materials.- Wort Production.- Fermentation and Maturation.- NEW PRODUCTS: LOW ALCOHOL BEER, ALCOHOL-FREE BEER, AND ICE BEER.- Low-Alcohol Beer and Alcohol-Free Beer.- Physical Removal of Ethanol.- Adaptation of the Traditional Process.- Ice Beer.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 4 Cidermaking.- HISTORY AND DEFINITION.- RAW MATERIALS.- Cider Apples.- Milling and Pressing.- Juice Additions.- FERMENTATION.- Yeast Selection.- Malo-lactic Fermentation.- Sulfite Binding.- Cider Color.- Cider Flavor.- POST-FERMENTATION OPERATIONS.- Racking and Storage.- Storage Disorders.- Flavor Disorders.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 5 White Wines.- WINE STYLES AND GRAPE VARIETIES.- Dry, White, Floral and Fruity Wines.- Medium-Dry, White, Floral and Fruity Wines.- Dry, White, Full-Bodied Wines.- Sweet, White Table Wines.- IMPROVED PLANTING MATERIAL.- THE VINEYARD AND HARVEST.- The Vineyard.- Harvest.- PREFERMENTATION TREATMENTS.- YEAST AND FERMENTATION CONTROL.- POSTFERMENTATION OPERATIONS.- REFERENCES.- 6 Red Wines.- STYLES OF RED TABLE WINES.- GRAPE MATURITY AND HARVESTING.- PREFERMENTATION OPTIONS.- JUICE, SKIN AND SEED CONTACTING.- Maceration Prior to Fermentation.- Conventional Maceration.- Maceration After the Fermentation.- Carbonic Maceration.- Color and Component Extraction During Conventional Maceration.- The Role of Copigmentation.- The Rates of Component Extraction.- Extraction From Seeds.- The Use of Temperature and Contacting Time To Enhance Extraction.- The Choice of Time to Press.- THE ETHANOL FERMENTATION.- Must Preparation.- Yeast Inoculation.- Fermentation Temperature.- Concurrent Malo-Lactic Fermentation.- Prediction of Fermentation Behavior.- Fermentation Problems.- Heat Evolution.- Gas Evolution.- MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION.- Malo-Lactic Bacteria.- Bacterial Nutrition.- Immobilized Bacteria.- POST-FERMENTATION HANDLING OF WINES.- AGING.- Aging Reactions.- Cooperage Considerations.- Microbial Control During Aging.- Evaporative Losses.- PREPARATION FOR BOTTLING.- REFERENCES.- 7 Sparkling Wines.- BASE WINES.- CARBONATION.- Levels and Terms.- Quantification of Carbonation.- Methods of Carbonation.- SECONDARY FERMENTATION BY YEAST.- Selection of Yeast and Conditioning.- Fermentation Temperature.- Culturing Techniques.- Inoculum Size.- Agglomerating Ability.- Enclosed or Encapsulated Yeast.- The Sugar Source for the Carbonating Fermentation.- The Vessel Used for the Carbonating Fermentation.- YEAST LEES AGING.- Overview of Lees Aging Reactions.- Non-Enzymic Effects on Composition of the Wine with Lees Contact.- Excretion of Amino Acids.- Autolysis and Enzymatic Activity.- METHOD OF CLARIFICATION.- No Clarification.- Riddling and Disgorging.- Filtration.- THE FINAL PACKAGE.- SWEETENING.- AGING OF SPARKLING WINES IN THE ABSENCE OF YEAST-EFFECT OF HEAT AND LIGHT.- General Sensory Effects of Heat.- Heat and the Formation of Ethyl Carbamate.- Heat and Maillard Reaction Products.- Heat and Changes in Ester Composition.- Heat and Oxidation.- Heat, Internal Pressure, and Bottle Seal.- Heat and Protein Instabilities.- Light.- FOAM AND BUBBLES.- Bubbles.- Foam.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 8 Fortified Wines: Sherry, Port and Madeira.- Definition and Scope.- Origins and Current Status of Fortified Wines.- Outline of the Basic Processes.- ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION.- FORTIFICATION SPIRIT.- SHERRY.- Definition.- Viticulture.- Climate and Soil.- Vineyards and Grape Varieties.- Vintage.- Vinification.- Pressing.- Fermentation and Fortification.- Styles of Wine.- Aging and Maturation.- Cellars.- The Solera System.- Aging Under Flor.- Maturation without Flor.- Sweetening and Color Wines.- Commercial Styles of Sherry.- Final Processing.- PORT.- Regulation.- Geographical Origin.- Viticulture.- Vintage.- Vinification.- Basic Styles of Wine.- Aging and Maturation.- Blending.- Commercial Styles of Port.- Wood Aged Styles.- Bottle Aged Styles.- Processing.- MADEIRA.- Regulation and Geographical Origin.- Viticulture.- Vintage.- Vinifìcation.- Aging and Maturation.- Blending.- Commercial Styles of Madeira.- Processing.- QUALITY ASPECTS.- Ethyl Carbamate.- Microbial Spoilage.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.- REFERENCES.- 9 From Vine to Cognac.- THE GEOLOGY AND THE ’CRU’ (GROWTH AREA).- THE VINE VARIETIES.- THE WINEMAKING.- Treatment of the Grapes in the First 5 Minutes.- From the Harvest to the Fermentation Vat.- The Fermentation.- THE CHARENTE DISTILLATION.- THE AGING OF COGNAC.- BLENDING: AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE PROCESS OF COGNAC PRODUCTION.- The Development of the Chemical Equilibrium During Blending and Reduction.- Production of the Blend.- Notions of Age.- Commercial Denominations.- CONCLUSION.- REFERENCES.- 10 Armagnac and Wine-Spirits.- ARMAGNAC.- Historical Background.- Appellation Areas, Soils, Climate, Vine Stocks.- Vinifìcation.- Distillation and Regulations.- The Continuous Armagnac Still (Figure 10-2).- Two-Stage Pot Stills.- Analysis.- Traditional Analyses.- Gas Chromatography.- High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).- Sensory Analyses.- Analysis of Principal Ions in Armagnac Spirits.- Carbonyl Compounds in Wine Spirits.- Aging and Merchandizing Preparation.- WINE-SPIRITS.- Regulations.- Wine-spirits.- Brandy.- Distillation.- Wine Rectifiers (Manlier, 1925).- Indirect Rectifiers.- Batch Rectification for the Production of Wine-Spirits or Distillates (Figure 10-16).- Composition of Brandies.- Aging and Merchandising Preparation.- ETHYL CARBAMATE IN WINE SPIRITS.- Role of the Distillation Process.- Role of the Vine Cultivar.- Search for a Precursor in the Case of 22 A Baco Wine.- Catalytic Role of Copper.- Role of Light.- Hydrocyanic Acid.- Use of Ion Exchange Resins to Reduce EC Content.- CONCLUSION.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.- REFERENCES.- 11 Whiskies.- MATERIALS.- MILLING, COOKING, AND MASHING.- Malt Whisky.- Grain Whisky.- FERMENTATION.- DISTILLATION.- Batch Distillation.- Continuous Distillation.- By-Products.- MATURATION.- Current Practice.- Cask Type.- Warehousing.- Sensory Changes During Maturation.- Chemical Changes During Maturation.- Extraction of Wood Components.- Reactions Involving Distillate Components.- Solution Changes That Affect the Release of Aroma-Compounds.- BLENDING.- FILTRATION.- RAW MATERIAL AND PRODUCT ANALYSES.- Sensory Assessment.- Raw Materials.- Cereals.- Yeast.- Water.- Mashing and Fermentation.- Distillation.- Maturation.- REFERENCES.- 12 Rum.- THE HISTORY OF RUM.- THE ORIG

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 254 x 178 mm Ø 1700 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 423
Pagine Romane: xxii

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