World In Transition: Ways Towards Global Environmental Solutions - Global Change (Wbgu) German Advisory Council On | Libro Springer 03/2012 -

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World in Transition: Ways Towards Global Environmental Solutions Annual Report 1995

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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 03/2012
Edizione: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996


At the first Conference of the Parties of the Climate Convention in Berlin in Spring 1995 it became evident once again: To counteract anthropogenic climate changes, individuals as well as societies have to change their way of thinking and behavior. This accounts for other areas of global environmental change as well. Global trends like soil degradation, loss of biological diversity, water scarcity and population growth show little or no sign of improvement. In fact, in most areas a rapid deterioration has taken place. In its latest Report the German Advisory Council on Global Change describes "Ways Towards Global Environmental Solutions".


Summary.- Summary.- A Introduction.- A Introduction.- B Societal Conditions for Solving Global Environmental Problems.- 1 Environmental Awareness and Environmental Education.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Environmentally Related Behavior and Its Determinants.- 1.3 Social Perception of Problems and Environmental Protection: Empirical Findings.- 1.3.1 Methodological Problems of Survey Research.- 1.3.2 Perception of Problems over Time (Longitudinal Analyses).- 1.3.3 Perception of Problems in a National Comparison (Cross-sectional Analyses).- 1.3.4 Values and Value Orientations: the World Values Survey.- 1.3.5 Summary.- 1.4 Environmental Education.- 1.4.1 Development, Standards and Problem Areas of Environmental Education.- Political Declarations Regarding Environmental Education.- Environmental Education in Practice: Criteria, Standards and Deficits.- Environmental Education in Industrialized Countries.- Environmental Education in Developing Countries.- 1.4.2 Activities Concerning Environmental Education in Germany: Global Aspects.- Activities in Connection with Schools.- NGO Activities.- 1.4.3 Activities Concerning Environmental Education in Developing Countries: Global Aspects.- Activities in Schools.- NGO Activities.- 1.4.4 Survey on the Status of Environmental Education in International Comparison.- 1.4.5 Summary.- 1.5 Research Recommendations.- 1.6 Recommended Action.- 2 Exchange of Know-how and Technology Transfer.- 2.1 Formation, Dissemination and Adaptation of Know-how.- 2.2 Opportunities and Limits of the Exchange of Know-how and Technology Transfer.- 2.2.1 Prerequisites.- 2.2.2 Assessment of Institutional Approaches.- 2.3 Summary.- 2.4 Recommendations for Research and Action.- 3 Institutions and Organizations.- 3.1 Problems Related to Institutional Innovation of Global Environmental Policy.- 3.2 Institutionalization of Global Environmental Policy.- 3.2.1 The Formation of Global Environmental Policy.- 3.2.2 Approaches to the Innovation of Global Institutions.- Transfers of Technology and Financial Resources.- Process, Resource and Organizational Control.- 3.2.3 Reforming Global Environmental Institutions.- Basic Restructuring.- Extension and Reform.- Modification and Expansion.- 3.3 Assessment of Global Environmental Institutions: Recommendations for Action and Research.- 3.3.1 Capacity Building.- Qualified Capacity Building.- Responding to Differing Capacities for Action.- 3.3.2 Introduction of International Environmental Audits.- 3.3.3 Flexibilization of Global Environmental Institutions.- Legitimation of Action.- Examples of Flexibilization.- Lean Management and Global Environmental Management.- 3.4 Special German Contributions to Institutional Innovation of Global Environmental Policy.- 4 Growth and Distribution of the World’s Population.- 4.1 Current Trends.- 4.1.1 Population Growth.- 4.1.2 Urbanization.- 4.1.3 Migration.- 4.2 Conferences and International Agreements.- 4.2.1 UNCED 1992: AGENDA 21.- Population Development.- Urbanization.- Migration.- 4.2.2 State, NGOs and Churches.- 4.2.3 The 1994 International Population Conference.- 4.3 Recommendations for Action and Research.- C International Conventions Aimed at Solving Global Environmental Problems.- 1 The Framework Convention on Climate Change — Berlin and its Aftermath.- 1.1 The Berlin Climate Conference — Results and Assessment.- 1.1.1 Climate Politics Between Ecological Necessities and Political Restrictions.- 1.1.2 The Results of the First Conference of the Parties — An Overview.- 1.2 The Relevance of the Human Factor to Climate.- 1.2.1 Evidence for the Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect.- 1.2.2 Accounting for Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosols in Global Circulation Models.- 1.2.3 Anthropogenic Forcing of the Earth’s Radiation Balance.- 1.2.4 Time-dependent Relative Global Warming Potentials as the Basis for Political Decision Making.- 1.3 Scenario for Estimating Minimum Targets for Global Emission Reductions.- 1.3.1 The “Backwards” Mode of the Scenario.- 1.3.2 The Basic Assumptions of the Scenario.- 1.3.3 The Key Conclusions of the Scenario.- 1.3.4 Possible Allocation Formulas.- 1.3.5 Conclusions for Altered Assumptions: A Sensitivity Analysis.- 1.4 Implementation of Reduction Requirements.- 1.4.1 The Self-commitment Imposed by Germany.- 1.4.2 Cost-benefit Analyses Applied to Climate Protection Strategies.- Cost-benefit Assessments.- Integrated Models.- 1.4.3 Reduction Potential and the International Distribution of Responsibility.- 1.4.4 Flexibility Under a System of Uniform National Quotas: Joint Implementation and the Tradeable Permit System.- 1.5 Research Recommendations.- 1.6 Recommendations for Action.- 2 The Montreal Protocol -An Example for Successful Environmental Policy.- 2.1 Stratospheric Ozone.- 2.1.1 Introduction.- 2.1.2 Implementation and Impacts of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments 125..- Recent Developments.- Exceptions.- Substitutes.- 2.1.3 Montreal and After: The EU Initiative.- 2.2 Tropospheric Zone.- 2.2.1 Increase in Surface Level Ozone.- 2.2.2 Impacts of Increased Near-surface Ozone Concentrations.- 2.2.3 Changes in the Ozone Concentration in the Free Troposphere.- 2.3 Dangers of UV-B Radiation.- 2.3.1 Effects of Increased UV-B Radiation.- 2.3.2 Recent Measurements.- 2.4 Recommendations for Research.- 2.5 Recommended Action.- 3 The Convention on the Law of the Sea -Towards the Global Protection of the Seas.- 3.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 3.2 Utilization Functions of the Seas.- 3.3 Transport Function.- 3.3.1 Marine Pollution from Vessels.- 3.3.2 Conflicts Between Flag, Port and Coastal States.- 3.4 Disposal Function.- 3.4.1 Terrestrial Sources of Pollution.- 3.4.2 Dumping of Waste.- 3.4.3 UV-B Radiation and Climate Change.- 3.5 Resource Function.- 3.5.1 Marine Mining.- 3.5.2 Fishing and Whaling.- 3.6 Marine Research.- 3.7 Summary and Outlook.- 3.8 Recommendations for Action and Research.- 4 The Desertification Convention -A First Step Towards the Protection of Soils.- 4.1 The Genesis and Content of the Desertification Convention.- 4.2 Assessment.- 4.3 Recommended Action and Research.- 5 The Biodiversity Convention — The Implementation Is Yet to Come.- 5.1 Current Trends in the Biosphere.- 5.2 Content of the Convention on Biological Diversity.- 5.3 Development and Current Status of the Convention Process.- 5.4 Key Focus: Access to Genetic Resources.- 5.5 Recommendations for Research.- 5.6 Recommendations for Action.- 6 Protection of Forests: Protocol or Convention?.- 6.1 Current Trends.- 6.2 Status of International Discussion.- 6.3 Forest Protocol Within the Convention on Biological Diversity.- 6.4 Convention for the Protection of the Forests.- 6.5 Conclusions and Recommendations for Action.- 7 The GATT/WTO Regime — The Greening of World Trade.- 7.1 Globalization of Economic Activity.- 7.2 The GATT Regime.- 7.2.1 Brief Outline.- 7.2.2 Interest Structures Within GATT.- 7.3 The Marrakech Decisions.- 7.4 Free Trade and the Environment.- 7.4.1 Free Trade Classical Arguments.- 7.4.2 Global Public Goods and Externalities.- 7.4.3 Competition Failure.- 7.4.4 Normative Interventions.- 7.5 Conclusions and Recommendations for Action.- 7.6 Recommendations for Research.- D General Conclusions and Recommendations.- D General Conclusions and Recommendations.- E Annex: Notes on the Inverse Scenario in Section C 1.3.- E Annex: Notes on the Inverse Scenario in Section C 1.3.- 1.1 Tolerable Stress for Nature and Society.- 1.2 Admissible Climate Change.- 1.3 Admissible Increases in C02 Concentration and Corresponding Global Emission Profiles.- 1.4 National Reduction Commitments.- F References.- F References.- G The Council.- G The Council.

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Collana: World in Transition
Dimensioni: 279 x 210 mm Ø 629 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 236
Pagine Romane: xvi

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