The Upper Atmosphere - Dieminger Walter (Curatore); Hartmann Gerd K. (Curatore); Leitinger Reinhart (Curatore) | Libro Springer 12/2011 - HOEPLI.it


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dieminger walter (curatore); hartmann gerd k. (curatore); leitinger reinhart (curatore) - the upper atmosphere

The Upper Atmosphere Data Analysis and Interpretation

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Dettagli

Genere:Libro
Lingua: Inglese
Editore:

Springer

Pubblicazione: 12/2011
Edizione: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996





Sommario

I Physics of the Upper Atmosphere.- I.1 Introduction to the Earth’s Atmosphere.- I.2 Dynamics of the Atmosphere.- I.2.1 Stationarity and Instationarity.- I.2.2 Small-Scale Dynamics of the Upper Atmosphere: Experimental Studies of Gravity Waves and Turbulence.- I.3 Atmospheric Tides.- I.4 Chemistry in the Atmosphere.- I.5 H2O in the Atmosphere.- I.6 Pollution of the Upper Atmosphere.- I.7 Transatmospheric Propagation of Radio Waves: The Role of the Atmosphere in Communication, Navigation, Geodesy etc..- I.8 Atmosphere as a Part of the Biosphere.- I.9 Legal Aspects.- II Investigation Methods of the Upper Atmosphere.- II.1 Acoustic Methods for Probing the Upper Atmosphere.- II.2 Hydrodynamic and Electrodynamic Measurements.- II.2.1 Introduction.- II.2.2 Observations of Hydrodynamic Parameters.- II.2.3 Foil Chaff Cloud Method.- II.2.4 Meteorological Rockets.- II.2.5 Electrodynamic and Plasma Measurement.- II.3 Electromagnetic Waves in the Upper Atmosphere.- II.3.1 The Refractive Index of the Atmosphere.- II.3.1.1 The Refractive Index of the Atmospheric Gases.- II.3.1.2 Models for the Refractive Index of the Neutral Atmosphere at Frequencies Below 1000 GHz.- II.3.1.3 The Refractive Index of the Ionized Atmosphere.- II.3.1.4 Three-Dimensional Ray Tracing in the Atmosphere.- II.3.2 Radio Frequencies.- II.3.2.1 Observations of the Middle Atmosphere and Lower Thermosphere by Radars.- II.3.2.2 Ionosonde.- II.3.2.3 Incoherent Scatter Technique.- II.3.3 Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere Using the Electromagnetic Spectrum from 30 — 0.1 mm wavelength.- II.3.4 Infrared Observations.- II.3.5 Visible Light.- II.3.6 Ultraviolet Wavelengths.- II.3.7 X-rays in the Atmosphere.- II.4 Chemistry and Physico-Chemistry.- II.5 Modification Methods.- II.5.1 Heating.- II.5.2 Particle Beams.- II.5.3 High-Altitude Nuclear Environments.- III International Reference and Model Atmosphere.- III.1 Selected Features of the Middle Atmosphere.- III.1.1 The Mean Structure of the Middle Atmosphere.- III.1.2 Electron and Ion Densities.- III.2 The Thermosphere: Selected Features.- III.2.1 Introduction.- III.2.2 Composition: Selected Features.- III.2.3 Water Vapour.- III.2.4 Thermospheric Variability and Dynamics.- III.3 The Ionosphere.- III.3.1 Introduction.- III.3.2 Remote Sensing of the Ionosphere.- III.3.3 Ionospheric Regions and Layers.- III.3.4 Production, Loss Processes and Transport.- III.3.5 Electron Density and Ion Density.- III.3.6 Ionospheric Electron Content.- III.3.7 Spatial and Temporal Variability.- III.3.8 Collision Frequencies for the Ionosphere.- III.3.9 Winds and Drifts.- III.3.10 Ionosphere Models.- III.3.11 Ionospheric Disturbances.- III.3.11.1 Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances.- III.3.11.2 Auroral Ion Precipitation.- III.3.11.3 Ionospheric Storms.- III.3.11.4 Scintillations and Others.- III.3.12 International Reference Ionosphere.- III.3.13 Ionospheric Prediction Models.- III.3.14 Anthropogenic Substances and Pollution.- III.4 Magnetosphere.- IV Special Phenomena of the Upper Atmosphere.- IV.1 Stratospheric Midwinter Warmings.- IV.2 The Antarctic Ozone Hole.- IV.3 Polar Mesospheric Clouds.- IV.4 Night Glow.- IV.5 Aurorae.- V Solar-Terrestrial Relations.- V.1 Solar Activity, Solar Cycle, Coordinates.- V.2 The Solar Wind and Its Effects on Geospace.- V.3 Geomagnetic Activity Indices.- VI Data Centres, Computer Network Communications, Observing Systems and Data Growth Rate Problems, Problems with Long-Term Data, Relevant for the Upper Atmosphere.- VI.1 General Overview of Online Services and Data Centres.- VI.2 The World Data Centre System, International Data Exchange, and New ICSU Programs.- VI.3 Computer Network Communications.- VI.4 SELDADS and SELSIS.- VI.5 Data Growth Rate Problems and Problems with Long-Term Data.




Trama

Especially due to the increasing environmental problems there is a need to collect as many data as possible in the upper atmosphere. This book serves as a general multidisciplinary guide and introduction for a more effective use of the large amount of now available data from the Earth's atmosphere. It also shows the problems of the use of large amounts of time series data - for basic science as well as for environmental monitoring - and the related information systems. The book is aimed for scientists and students interested in the Earth's atmosphere which is vital for the understanding of environmental changes in the global system Earth.







Altre Informazioni

ISBN:

9783642787195

Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 235 x 155 mm Ø 1533 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 1014
Pagine Romane: xviii






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