This textbook provides a state of the art of the knowledge on the prevalence, risk and etiological factors, clinical features, assessment procedures and tools, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prognosis of the psychiatric disorders encountered in people with intellectual disability (ID) and low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ID and ASD represent two meta-syndromic groups of several different conditions, each with particular cognitive and communication features. People with ID/ASD display an increased prevalence of a variety of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety and stress-related disorders, somatoform disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well behavioral syndromes, personality disorders, and disorders due to psychoactive substance use. This book will enable readers to understand the specificities of psychiatric disorders in the context of ID/ASD. It explains clearly how diagnostic criteria and assessment procedures for psychiatric disorders that were created for the general population have to be modified for use with ID/ASD. Above all, it will enable clinicians to overcome difficulties in diagnosis and to deliver more effective care that meets the particular needs of patients with ID/ASD.
Chapter 1 Introduction (Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 2 Intellectual Developmental Disorders (Munir, K.).- Chapter 3 Epidemiology of Intellectual Disability (Maulik, P.).- Chapter 4 Vulnerability (Banks, R.).- Chapter 5 Borderline Intellectual Functioning (Hassiotis, A.).- Chapter 6 Problem Behaviours (Deb, S., Unwin, G., Cooper, S., Rojahn, J.).- Chapter 7 Behavioural Phenotypes (Munir, K.).- Chapter 8 Psychopathology and Phenomenology (Jung, R.).- Chapter 9 Diagnostic Issues (Moss, S.).- Chapter 10 Psychiatric Assessment (Moss, S.).- Chapter 11 Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders (General) (Cooper, S.).- Chapter 12 Aetiology and Pathogenesis (Korb, L., Hassiotis, A., Sheehan, R.).- Chapter 13 Treatment and Intervention (Deb, S.).- Chapter 14 Non pharmacological Interventions (Didden, R., Leoni, M., Cavagnola, R., Sigafoos, J.).- Chapter 15 Outcome Measures (Bianco, A.).- Chapter 16 Other Developmental Disorders and IDD (Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 17 Specific Developmental Disorders (Munir, K., Bachman, C., Mengheri, L.).- Chapter 18 Behavioural and Emotional Disorders with Onset Usually Occurring in Childhood and Adolescence (Munir, K.).- Chapter 19 Psychotic Disorders (Hassiotis, A.).- Chapter 20 Mood Disorders (Hurley, A., Levitas, A.).- Chapter 21 Anxiety and Stress-related Disorders (Tassé, M., Cooray, S.).- Chapter 22 Somatoform Disorders (Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 23 Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Jarrett, B.).- Chapter 24 Behavioural Syndromes Associated with Physiological Disturbances and Physical Factors (Gravestock, S.).- Chapter 25 Nonorganic sleep disorders (Rossi, M., Scuticchio, D., Bianco, A., Merli, M., Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 26 Nonorganic Sexual Dysfunction (Scuticchio, D., Rossi, M., Bianco, A., Merli, M., Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 27 Dementia in People with Intellectual Disabilities (Deb, S., Strydom, A., Hithersay, R., Gomiero, T., De Vreese, L., Janicki, M., Jokinen, N., Service, K.).- Chapter 28 Other Disorders Due to Brain Damage and Dysfunction and to Physical Disease (Seidel, M.).- Chapter 29 Mental and Behavioural Disorders Due to Psychoactive Substance Use (Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 30 Personality Disorders (Cooray, S.).- Chapter 31 Co-occurrence and Differential Diagnosis (Bertelli, M.).- Chapter 32 ID & Sensory Impairment / Multiple Disability (Fellinger, J.).- Chapter 33 Training (Weber, G.).- Chapter 34 Mental Health Services (McCarthy, J., Chaplin, E.).- Chapter 35 Health costs (Romeo, R., Boadu, J., McNamara, R.).- Chapter 36 Residential Services and Community Living (Beadle-Brown, J.).- Chapter 37 Work and Occupation (Francescutti, C.).- Chapter 38 Cultural Issues (Allen-Leigh, B., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Katz, G.).- Chapter 39 Spiritual Issues (Fellinger, J.).- Chapter 40 Forensic Issues (Chaplin, E., McCarthy, J.).- Chapter 41 Human Rights (Banks, R.).
Marco O. Bertelli, MD is the scientific director of the Research and Clinical Centre (CREA) of Fondazione San Sebastiano, Misericordia di Firenze, Florence, Italy. He acted and still acts as a consultant psychiatrist to various service providers for people with neurodevelopmental disabilities and mental health problems. He worked as an adjunct professor at the University of Florence, and taught and still teaches in several Italian and international courses. Dr Bertelli is the current president of SIDiN (Italian Society for Neurodevelopmental Disorders) and past president of both the Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability section of the World Psychiatric Association and the European Association for Mental Health in Intellectual Disability. For the World Psychiatric Association, he is currently chairing the Working Group on Autism Spectrum Disorder. He has been a member of the Working Group on Classification of Intellectual Disabilities of the WHO International Advisory Group for the revision of ICD-11. For the World Health Organization is also worked within the Development Group for Autism Spectrum Disorders to the creation of the WHO Package of Interventions for Rehabilitation. He is an editorial board member of some scientific journals in the field, such as the Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, and author of around 200 journal articles and book chapters. Since 2017, Dr Bertelli is member of the scientific committee of the Italian Observatory for Disabilities. In 2011, he was awarded with the Honorary Membership of the World Psychiatric Association for excellence in service, and in 2021, he received the Leon Eisenberg Award of the Harvard Medical School for outstanding leadership and stewardship in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Shoumitro (Shoumi) Deb, MBBS, FRCPsych, MD is Visiting Professor of Neuropsychiatry at the Imperial College London, UK. Prior to that, he was a substantive full time Clinical Professor of Neuropsychiatry at the University of Birmingham, UK, for many years. He led the development of the International (World Psychiatry, 2009,8(3),181–186) and the National Guidelines on the use of medication for problem behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities and produced the first ever freely available online accessible psychotropic medication leaflets (http://www.ldmedication.bham.ac.uk). He led the development of the first ever European guideline for the assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities which has recently been updated (European Journal of Psychiatry, 2022,36,11–25). He was part of the group that developed the first ever evidence-based practice guidelines in intellectual disabilities in the UK NHS. He developed a screening instrument for dementia in people with intellectual disabilities (DSQIID), which has been translated into more than 24 languages and validated for worldwide use. He developed the first-ever online training programme, SPECTROM (https://spectrom.wixsite.com/project), for support staff to help reduce overmedication of adults with intellectual disabilities. He has around 300 publications (citation index: 7357, h-index: 46, i10 index: 96); done over 250 conference presentations nationally and internationally, including keynote speeches and chairing of sessions; received research grants from the UK NIHR, Wellcome Trust and other charities; led a research/teaching team of over 14 staff; led several masters’ courses in UK universities (neuropsychiatry, epilepsy, psychological medicine etc.); and was the co-chair of SPID WPA, a member of the WHO ICD-11 workgroup on intellectual disabilities and a member of several NICE guideline development groups in the UK.
Kerim Munir, MD, MPH, DSc, DFAACAP is Director of Psychiatry at the University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities in the Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, and William A. Hinton Society Fellow in Global Health at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. His research focuses on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual developmental disorders (IDD) across the lifespan, with an emphasis on understanding determinants of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity. He served as a member of the WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11) Review Group on Intellectual Disabilities, as well as the WHO Development Group on Rehabilitation 2030. He chairs the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Section on Psychiatry of IDD, as well as the WPA Presidential Action Plan 2021–2023 Working Group on IDD. Dr Munir has been a vice president of the International Association of Child and Allied Professionals (IACAPAP), and a distinguished fellow and faculty member of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) IDD Institutes. He has directed numerous Nati