Surface And Underground Excavations - Tatiya Ratan Raj | Libro Crc Press 05/2013 - HOEPLI.it


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Surface and Underground Excavations Methods, Techniques and Equipment




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Genere:Libro
Lingua: Inglese
Editore:

CRC Press

Pubblicazione: 05/2013
Edizione: Edizione nuova, 2° edizione





Note Editore

Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are discussed and subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations: tunnelling, drifting, raising, sinking, stoping, quarrying, surface mining, liquidation and mass blasting as well as construction of large subsurface excavations such as caverns and underground chambers. The design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Especially featured are methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis.

Furthermore, this edition encompasses comprehensive sections on mining at ‘ultra depths’, mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies, mineral inventory evaluation (ore – reserves estimation) and mine closure. Concerns over Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention, and sustainable development are also addressed in advocating a solution to succeed within a scenario of global competition and recession.

This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, brought fully up-to-date and includes (wherever feasible) the latest trends and best practices, case studies, global surveys and toolkits as well as questions at the end of each chapter. This volume will now be even more appealing to students in earth sciences, geology, and in civil, mining and construction engineering, to practicing engineers and professionals in these disciplines as well as to all with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations.





Sommario

1 Introduction
1.1 Excavations and their classification
1.2 Surface excavations
1.3 Underground excavations
1.4 Importance of minerals and brief history of their recovery
1.5 Current status of mineral industry
1.6 Excavation technologies/systems – development & growth
1.7 Unique features of mineral industry
1.7.1 Different phases of mine life
1.8 Brief history of civil work excavations including tunneling
1.9 The current scenario
1.9.1 Population growth
1.9.2 Lifestyle
1.9.3 Globalization
1.9.4 Buyer’s market
1.9.5 Technological developments and renovations
1.9.6 Information technology (IT) and its impacts
1.10 Tomorrow’s mine & civil excavations
1.11 The way forward
Questions
References

2 Rocks, minerals and mineral inventory evaluation
2.1 Formation process and classification
2.1.1 Igneous rocks
2.1.2 Sedimentary rocks
2.1.3 Metamorphic rocks
2.2 Rock cycle & type of deposits
2.3 Texture, grain size and shape
2.3.1 Grain sizes and shapes
2.3.2 Durability, plasticity and swelling potential of rocks
2.4 The concepts of mineral resources and reserves; mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ores
2.4.1 Some important ores – chemical & mineralogical composition
2.5 Geological structures
2.5.1 Geometry of a deposit
2.5.2 Forms of deposits
2.5.3 Structural features of rock mass
2.6 Physical and mechanical characteristics of ores and rocks
2.6.1 Rocks as rock mechanics
2.6.2 Rock composition
2.6.3 Rock strength
2.7 Some other properties/characteristics
2.7.1 Hardness of minerals
2.7.2 Rock breakability
2.8 Related terms – rock and mineral deposits
2.9 Mineral inventory evaluation
2.9.1 Introduction
2.9.2 Grade computation from borehole data
2.9.3 Mineral inventory modelling/estimation techniques
2.9.3.1 Method of polygons
2.9.3.2 Triangle or triangular prism method
2.9.3.3 Cross-sectional method
2.9.3.4 Inverse Square Distance Weighting (IDW) method
2.9.3.5 Classical statistics
2.9.3.6 Geostatistics
2.9.3.7 Non-linear estimation techniques in geostatistics
2.9.4 Important considerations for evaluation of the mineral inventory
2.9.4.1 Homogeneity and mode of origin
2.9.4.2 Geological and mineralogical boundaries
2.9.5 Computation of the mineral inventory
2.9.5.1 Logical steps followed
2.9.5.2 Graphical presentation of data
2.9.5.3 Statistical analysis and cumulative probability distribution
2.9.5.4 Structural analysis – the semi-variogram
2.9.5.5 Trend surface analysis
2.9.5.6 Checking the variogram model
2.9.5.7 Block kriging
2.9.5.8 Block dimensions
2.9.5.9 Kriging procedure
2.9.6 Graphical presentation of the kriged results
2.9.7 Grade-tonnage calculation and plotting the curves
2.9.8 Selection of a suitable mining/stoping method
2.10 Resources classification by UNECE
2.11 The way forward
Questions
References

3 Prospecting, exploration & site investigations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Prospecting and exploration
3.2.1 Finding signs of the mineral in the locality or general indications
3.2.1.1 Geological studies
3.2.1.2 Geo-chemical studies
3.2.2 Finding the deposit or preliminary proving
3.2.2.1 Geophysical methods/studies/surveys
3.2.2.2 Putting exploratory headings
3.2.3 Exploring the deposits or detailed proving – prospecting drilling
3.3 Phases of prospecting and exploration program
3.4 Site investigations for civil constructions, or any excavation project including tunnels and caverns
3.5 Rocks and ground characterization
3.5.1 Rock strength classification
3.5.2 Rock mass classifications
3.6 Rock quality designation (RQD)
3.6.1 Q (Rock mass quality) system
3.6.2 Geomechanics classification (RMR system)
3.6.3 Rock structure rating (RSR)
3.7 Geological and geotechnical factors
3.8 The way forward
Questions
References

4 Drilling
4.1 Introduction – unit operations
4.2 Primary rock breaking
4.3 Drilling
4.4 Operating components of the drilling system
4.5 Mechanics of rock penetration
4.5.1 Top-hammer drilling
4.5.2 Down-the-hole (DTH) drilling
4.5.3 Rotary drilling
4.5.4 Augur drill
4.5.5 Rotary abrasive drilling
4.6 Rock drill classification
4.6.1 Tunneling/development drill jumbos
4.6.2 Shaft jumbos
4.6.3 Ring drilling jumbos
4.6.4 Fan drilling jumbos
4.6.5 Wagon drill jumbos
4.6.6 DTH drill jumbos
4.6.7 Roof bolting jumbos
4.7 Motive power of rock drills
4.7.1 Electric drills
4.7.2 Pneumatic drills
4.7.3 Hydraulic drills
4.8 Drilling accessories
4.8.1 Extension drill steels
4.8.2 Bits
4.8.3 Impact of rock-type on drilling performance
4.9 Selection of drill
4.10 Summary – rocks drill applications
4.11 Drilling postures
4.12 The way forward
Questions
References

5 Explosives and blasting
5.1 Introduction – explosives
5.2 Detonation and deflagration
5.3 Common ingredients of explosives
5.4 Classification of explosives
5.4.1 Primary or initiating explosives
5.4.2 Secondary explosives
5.4.3 Pyrotechnic explosives
5.4.4 Low explosives
5.4.5 Commercial explosives – high explosives
5.4.5.1 Gelatin explosives
5.4.5.1.1 Dynamites (straight dynamite, ammonia dynamite)
5.4.5.1.2 Blasting gelatin
5.4.5.1.3 Semi gelatin
5.4.5.2 Wet blasting agents
5.4.5.2.1 Slurry explosives
5.4.5.2.2 Emulsions
5.4.5.2.3 Heavy ANFO
5.4.5.3 Dry blasting agents
5.4.5.3.1 Explosive ANFO
5.4.5.3.2 ANFO mixing
5.4.5.3.3 ANFO loading
5.4.5.4 Pneumatic loaders and principles of loading
5.4.5.4.1 Pressure type loaders
5.4.5.4.2 Ejector type loader
5.4.5.4.3 Combine type (combining pressure and ejecting features)
5.4.5.5 Safety aspects
5.4.5.6 Static hazards associated with ANFO loading
5.4.5.7 Special types of explosives
5.4.5.7.1 Permitted explosives
5.4.5.7.2 Seismic explosives
5.4.5.7.3 Overbreak control explosives
5.4.6 Military explosives
5.5 Blasting properties of explosives
5.5.1 Strength
5.5.2 Detonation velocity
5.5.3 Density
5.5.4 Water resistance
5.5.5 Fume characteristics, or class, or medical aspects
5.5.6 Oxygen balance
5.5.7 Completion of reaction
5.5.8 Detonation pressure
5.5.9 Borehole pressure and critical diameter
5.5.10 Sensitivity
5.5.11 Safety in handling & storage qualities
5.5.12 Explosive cost
5.6 Explosive initiating devices/systems
5.6.1 Detonator system
5.6.1.1 Detonators
5.6.1.2 Instantaneous detonators
5.6.1.2.1 Plain detonator
5.6.1.2.2 Instantaneous electric detonators
5.6.1.3 Delay detonators
5.6.1.3.1 Electric delay detonators
5.6.1.3.2 Electronic delay detonators
5.6.1.3.3 Non-electric delay detonators: detonating relays (ms connectors)
5.6.1.3.4 Primadet and anodet non-electric delay blasting systems
5.6.1.3.5 The nonel system
5.6.1.3.6 Combine primadet-nonel system
5.6.1.3.7 The hercudet blasting cap system
5.6.1.3.8 Advantages of short delay blasting
5.6.2 Fuse/cord system
5.6.2.1 Safety fuse
5.6.2.2 Detonating fuse/cord (DC)
5.6.2.3 Igniter cords (IC)
5.7 Explosive charging techniques
5.7.1 Water gel (slurry loader)
5.8 Blasting accessories
5.8.1 Exploders
5.8.2 Circuit testers
5.8.3 Other blasting tools
5.9 Firing systems – classification
5.9.1 While firing with a safety fuse
5.9.2 Firing with electric detonators
5.9.3 Non-electric systems
5.10 Ground blasting techniques
5.10.1 Control/contour blasting
5.10.1.1 Pre-split





Autore

Dr. Ratan Tatiya is a consultant in the areas of excavation, construction, mining and allied disciplines and in a career spanning more than 42 years he has held senior positions in the industry, as a professor, researcher and consultant and has worked with multinationals from more than 40 countries. His industrial background has led to this book being industrially relevant and his academic background has ensured that the fundamentals and basics required to help readers have been included.








Altre Informazioni

ISBN:

9780415621199

Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 10 x 7 in Ø 3.85 lb
Formato: Copertina rigida
Illustration Notes:illustrations
Pagine Arabe: 904






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