Small Dams - Lewis Barry | Libro Crc Press 11/2013 -

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Small Dams Planning, Construction and Maintenance

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Lingua: Inglese

CRC Press

Pubblicazione: 11/2013
Edizione: 1° edizione

Note Editore

Small Dams: Planning, Construction and Maintenance has been written to provide a practical approach and guide to determining catchment yield and the amount of water required in a dam, advising on selecting and working with engineers and contractors, as well as outlining the cause of dam failures and how to remedy problems quickly. It also covers relevant legislation, environmental and ecological issues. Employing the principles in this book, in conjunction with heeding the advice of suitably experienced and qualifi ed engineers and contractors, will reduce the risk of failure and help to ensure the long term success of any small dam in question. Small Dams will be an invaluable resource for anyone who owns a dam, and a useful reference for agencies, contractors and engineers. The author, Barry Lewis, has over forty years of experience as an engineer and has written extensively on farm dams, soil conservation, catchment management and the environmental impact of dams both on and off streams. He was also directly involved in the licensing and regulating of small dams in Australia.


Section 1 Planning 1.1 Assessing water needs 1.1.1 Planning water supplies 1.1.2 Water quality1.2 Assessment of catchment yield 1.2.1 Factors controlling catchment yield 1.2.2 Methods of estimating catchment yield 1.2.3 How trees affect yield 1.2.4 Artificial catchments 1.3 Dam site selection 1.3.1 Choosing a dam site 1.4 Types of farm storages 1.4.1 Gully dams 1.4.2 Hillside dams 1.4.3 Ring tanks 1.4.4 Turkey’s nest tanks 1.4.5 Excavated tanks 1.4.6 Weirs 1.4.7 Off-waterway storages 1.5 Dam storage size 1.5.1 Evaporation losses 1.5.2 Ways of controlling evaporation 1.5.3 Seepage losses 1.5.4 Average water consumption 1.6 Using a dam in drought 1.7 Fire fighting 1.8 Small dams and trees 1.9 Dam cost justification Section 2 Investigation 2.1 Soil testing 2.1.1 Foundation 2.1.2 Borrow pit for embankment material 2.1.3 Spillway site 2.2 Site selection criteria 2.2.1 Seepage losses 2.2.2 Stability of dam sides 2.2.3 Sedimentation in dams 2.3 Foundation materials 2.4 Embankment materials2.5 Site investigation of materials 2.5.1 Soil texture tests 2.5.2 Unified soil classification 2.6 Analysis of soil 2.6.1 Core trench 2.6.2 Embankment soil 2.7 Location of soil 2.8 Unsuitable material Section 3 Design 3.1 Items that need to be considered 3.1.1 Embankment types 3.1.2 Core trench 3.1.3 Embankment batter slope 3.1.4 Crest width 3.1.5 Freeboard 3.1.6 Alternative ways of batter protection 3.1.7 Topsoil cover 3.1.8 Fencing 3.2 Flood flow estimation 3.2.1 Peak flow estimation 3.3 Outlet structures 3.3.1 Earth spillways 3.3.2 Design spillway capacity 3.3.3 Selecting spillway dimensions 3.3.4 Chute spillways 3.4 Pipelines through embankments 3.4.1 Trickle pipes 3.4.2 Drop inlet structures 3.4.3 Cut-off collars 3.5 Earth and water computations 3.5.1 Embankment material 3.5.2 Floor slope 3.5.3 Area beneath embankment 3.5.4 Excavated tanks 3.5.5 Water storage capacity computations 3.5.6 Storage excavation ratio 3.6 Estimate of costs 3.6.1 Economics 3.6.2 Dam quality pays over time Section 4 Documentation 4.1 Collation of plans and specification 4.2 Collecting basic design data 4.2.1 Catchment map 4.2.2 Location (topographical) map4.2.3 Profiles and cross-sections 4.2.4 Soils 4.3 Assembly of data 4.3.1 Analysis of data 4.3.2 Design 4.4 Construction documents and drawings 4.4.1 Specifications 4.4.2 Checklist 4.5 Final review and approval 4.5.1 Records Section 5 Construction 5.1 Approval for dam building 5.1.1 Details that may need to be submitted 5.1.2 Referral dams 5.2 Selecting your dam builders 5.2.1 Selecting an engineer 5.2.2 Details that an engineer can provide 5.3 How to build a dam 5.4 Steps in constructing a dam 5.4.1 Setting out 5.4.2 Diversion of water 5.4.3 Clearing and grubbing 5.4.4 Stripping topsoil 5.4.5 Core trench 5.4.6 Borrow pit material 5.4.7 Selection and placing of material 5.4.8 Spillway and outlet structures 5.4.9 Batters and topsoil 5.5 Compaction 5.5.1 Compaction when constructing a dam 5.5.2 Recommendations for compaction 5.6 Soil moisture 5.6.1 Adjusting soil moisture 5.7 Allowance for settlement 5.8 Equipment 5.8.1 Rollers 5.8.2 Features of roller compaction 5.8.3 Other machinery 5.9 Installation of outlet pipe 5.9.1 Testing of the pipe 5.9.2 Foundations on rock 5.10 Checking for compliance with standards 5.10.1 Checking the contractor’s work 5.10.2 Inspection during construction5.10.3 Good work takes time 5.10.4 Extra ‘bonuses’ 5.10.5 Changing your mind 5.10.6 Progress payments 5.11 Final inspection and measurements Section 6 Maintenance 6.1 Safety surveillance 6.1.1 Equipment for inspection 6.1.2 Observations to be recorded 6.2 Inspection procedures 6.2.1 General techniques 6.2.2 Specific techniques 6.2.3 Evaluation of observations 6.2.4 Frequency of inspection 6.3 Causes of dam failures 6.3.1 Dispersive clays 6.3.2 Seepage and leakage 6.3.3 Cracking and movement cracks 6.3.4 Erosion 6.3.5 Deformation and movement 6.3.6 Defects in associated structures 6.3.7 Vegetation 6.3.8 Total catchment protection 6.3.9 Weed control 6.4 Dam leakage 6.4.1 Rebuilding 6.4.2 Use of soil additives 6.4.3 Artificial liners 6.4.4 Using a clay liner Section 7 Water7.1 Quantity 7.2 Water quality 7.2.1 Domestic use 7.2.2 Stock water 7.2.3 Irrigation water 7.3 Water treatment for human consumption 7.4 Algae in farm water supplies 7.4.1 Problems 7.4.2 Identification 7.5 Salt in dam water 7.5.1 Minimising salinity in dams 7.5.2 Interception of sub-surface saline water 7.5.3 Maintenance 7.5.4 Downstream effects 7.5.5 Minimising the effects of evaporation 7.5.6 Stock and salty water Section 8 Ecology 8.1 Wildlife and plants in dams 8.1.1 Water regime 8.1.2 Basic topography 8.1.3 Vegetation 8.1.4 Grazing by stock 8.1.5 Waterways and swamps 8.1.6 The role of hunting 8.1.7 Waterfowl management 8.2 Water plants in dams 8.2.1 Aquatic plants 8.3 Using herbicides near water 8.3.1 Hazards 8.4 Vegetation on and around dams 8.5 Yabbies 8.5.1 Physical removal 8.5.2 Biological removal 8.5.3 Chemical control Section 9 Commercial 9.1 Fish farming 9.1.1 Established freshwater species 9.1.2 Dam conditions that control productivity 9.1.3 Feeding 9.1.4 Aquatic vegetation 9.1.5 Fish loss by escaping 9.1.6 Muddy water 9.1.7 Algae 9.1.8 Other species 9.2 Yabby farming 9.2.1 Types of dams for yabby production 9.2.2 Water properties 9.2.3 Stocking and feeding 9.2.4 Harvesting 9.3 Native fauna and total ecosystem management 9.3.1 Native fauna 9.3.2 Managing predation by native fauna 9.4 Licensing process 9.4.1 Licences required 9.4.2 Other steps that may need to be taken Section 10 Legal 10.1 Legal and policy aspects in Australia 10.2 Liability 10.3 Responsibility of dam owners 10.3.1 Liabilities of dam owners 10.3.2 Permission to build a dam 10.4 Dam failure 10.4.1 Potential hazard and risk of small dams 10.4.2 Minimising the risk of dam failure 10.4.3 In case of dam failure 10.4.4 Abandonment of small dams 10.5 Designer and earthmoving contractor(s) 10.6 Property insurance References and suggested further reading Appendix 1 Glossary of terminology Appendix 2 Engineering specification for an earth-fill farm dam Appendix 3 Metric and imperial conversion tables


Farmers are well aware of the need to boost productivity. In the face of the greater competition for domestic and overseas markets, the farmer who wants to succeed has to tak a business approach to increasing efficiency, reducing costs and improving output. In this environment, water becomes an economic factor and its provision a matter for careful deliberation. This book is designed as a guide for dam owners, engineering students, government agencies, developers, and earthmoving contractors who are responsible for designing, building and using the majority of farm water storages. It is also designed for engineers who have not specialised in small earth dam design for agricultural hydrology who need to design small water storage schemes. 'Small Dams' provides a practial approach and guide to determining catchment yield and the amount of water required in a dam. It also advises on working with engineers and contractors, and outlines the causes of dam failures and how to remedy problems quickly. It further covers relevant legislation, environmental and ecological issues from a global perspective, with explicit reference to various countries around the world.
By employing the principles in this volume, in conjuction with the advise of suitably experienced engineers and contractors, small dam builders, such as farmers and land owners, will reduce the risk of failure and ensure long-term success of their dams. An invaluable reference resource for anyone who owns or plans to own a dam, and a useful reference for agencies, contractors and engineers.


Barry Lewis has over thirty years of experience as an engineer and has written extensively on farm dams, soil conservation, catchment management and the environmental impact of farm dams both on- and off-stream. He is directly involved in the licensing and regulation of farm dams in Victoria, Australia.

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 9.75 x 6.75 in Ø 1.35 lb
Formato: Copertina rigida
Illustration Notes:illustrations
Pagine Arabe: 210

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