This book introduces what sclerotia grains are, and where and how they exist in soils, by compiling the results obtained from the studies on fungal sclerotia formed by Cenococcum geophilum (Cg) and related species, the visible black small grains persistent for a few thousand to ten thousands of years in forest soils and sediments. The chapters contain the results and discussions on the ecological distribution and regulating factors, characteristics, and function of Cg sclerotia grains, carried out by researchers from soil geography, soil science, soil microbiology, physiology, forestry, analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, material science, and related disciplines. The anatomy of sclerotia grains in soil was realized in terms of interdisciplinary joint researches, which resulted in deepening understanding of the ecological function of the mesoscale organic component in soils. This book covers the natural history of sclerotia in soils, pedo-sclerotiology.
Chapter 1 Introduction 10p
1-1 What are sclerotium grains?
1-2 Cenococcum geophilum and sclerotia
1-3 Sclerotium grain studies in Earth Science
PART I Chemical and Physical Properties of Sclerotium Grains 90p
Chapter 2 Major and minor elemental composition SEM-EDS, EPMA, PIXE, C-NMR, FT-IR, Al-NMR, TEM-EDX Watanabe and Bolormaa
Chapter 3 Life age of Cg sclerotia 14C age and stable isotope ratiod13C Watanabe
Chapter 4 Existing amount and strength properties of sclerotium grains Sakagami
Chapter 5 Carbon decomposition and Al enrichment Watanabe, Sakagami
Chapter 6 Micromorphology in sclerotium grains (Boemite, opaline silica) Watanabe
Chapter 7 Heavy metal concentration in sclerotia grains Watanabe and Bolormaa
Part II Biological Properties of Sclerotium Grains 80pChapter 8 Fungal communities in sclerotia Nonoyama & Narisawa& Amasya
Chapter 9 Sclerotia and Soil Anthropods -Niche differentiation of fungivorous Acari and Collembola in Japanese beech forest soils- Amasya
Chapter 10 Bacterial communities in sclerotia Sphingomonas and Ralstonia picketti Ohta
Chapter 11 Sclerotium grains as Microbial carrier in soil Nonoyama
Part III Ecological Distribution of Sclerotium Grains 90p
Chapter 12 Active aluminum status as regulating factor of sclerotium distribution
Myoko,Podzols, Braunerde Harz mts. Germany Watanabe
Chapter 13 Altitudinal and seasonal distribution of sclerotia grains Sakagami
Chapter 14 Micro-topographical distribution of sclerotia grains in Picea abies forest, Harz Mts. Sakagami
Chapter 15 Forest stand structure and sclerotium grains, Mt. Chokai, Central Japan Guo
Chapter 16 Conclusion 5p
A Mesoscale component in Soil >>>>> Function of Vital Soil Watanabe
Makiko Watanabe is a professor of soil geography in the Department of Geography, the Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan (2008–present), and she was a professor at the Department of Environmental Science and Technology, the Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (2002–2010). She served as a program officer of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (2009–2012), a member of the Science Council of Japan (2006–2014), and currently is a member of the National Research and Development Agency Council of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2015–present). She was a visiting scholar at the Godwin Laboratory, the University of Cambridge (1998), a visiting professor at the Department of Historical Ecology, Krasnoyarsk State University (2000), and a visiting professor at the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Regina (2016). Based on her abundant field experiences in the Philippines, Germany, Egypt, Canada, and Mongolia, she has a broad view of understanding the time and space of soil environment and individual land history. Her research achievements are specialized in long-term circulation of soil substances and nature–human systems in regional environments, which provide basic knowledge of potentiality and limitation of homeostasis in terrestrial earth and feasible strategies for sustainable development.
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