Introduction to Optics.- Part I Electromagnetism.- Historical notes: the first discoveries about magnetism and electricity.- The dawning.- The laws of electromagnetism.- The discovery of electromagnetic waves.- Suggested reading.- 1 Recalls of electromagnetism.- Introduction.- 1.1 The fundamentals.- 1.2 Maxwell’s equations in macroscopic media.- 1.3 Complex field representation.- 1.4 Electromagnetic waves.- 1.5 Energy flow and density of momentum and energy.- 1.6 Polarization.- 1.7 Reflection and refraction on plane interface.- 1.8 Dispersion theory.- 1.9 Optics of metals and absorbent materials.- Bibliographical references.- Part II Geometrical Optics.- Historical notes: from Empedokles to Huygens.- The dawning.- The Arab period.- The Middle Ages.- The Renaissance.- The New Science.- The law of refraction and the speed of light.- The debate over the nature of light.- Suggested reading.- 2 Geometrical Optics.- Introduction.- 2.1 Derivation of Geometrical Optics for ? à 0.- 2.2 Propagation properties in Geometrical Optics.- 2.3 General properties of the rays.- 2.4 Optical images.- 2.5 Ideal images.- 2.6 Paraxial Optics.- 2.7 The method of matrices.- 2.8 Apertures of an optical system.- 2.9 Aberrations.- 2.10 Plane mirrors and prisms.- Bibliographical references.- Part III Physical Optics.- Historical notes: from Newton to Fresnel.- The Newton’s Optics.- The progress of 18th century.- The emission theory and the speed of light.- Young and the principle of interference.- Fresnel.- The ether and the stellar aberration.- The diffraction and the interference.- The “Mémoire couronné”.- The studies on polarization.- The transverse nature of the waves.- The reflection.- The propagation in anisotropic media.- Epilogue.- Suggested reading.- 3. Interference.- Introduction.- 3.1 Generalities on interference.- 3.2 Two-wave interference.- 3.3 Multiple-wave interference.- 3.4 Dielectric film with multiple layers.- 4 Diffraction.- Introduction.- 4.1 Scalar theory of diffraction.- 4.2 Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction.- 4.3 Examples of Fraunhofer’s diffraction.- 4.4 Examples of Fresnel’s diffraction.- Bibliographical references.- Part IV Fourier’s Optics.- Historical notes: from Fourier to Fizeau.- The mathematicians.- New glasses and optical instruments.- The research on the speed of light and on the aether.- The photography.- The studies on the color and the physiology of the eye.- Suggested reading.- 5 Fourier’s Optics.- Introduction.- 5.1 Mathematical preliminaries.- 5.2 Sampling theorems.- 5.3 Applications of the Fourier transform to the diffraction.- 5.4 Analysis of optical systems by means of the theory of linear systems.- 5.5 Coherence.- 5.6 Spatial filtering.- 5.7 Diffraction gratings.- Bibliographical references.- Part V Propagation.- Historical notes: from Kirchhoff to Einstein.- The Relativity.- The black body radiation.- The photon.- Suggested reading.- 6 Propagation of laser beams in linear media.- Introduction.- 6.1 The paraxial wave equation.- 6.2 Propagation of the fundamental Gaussian mode.- 6.3 Modes of higher order.- 6.4 Practical notes.- 6.5 Transformations induced by lenses and by axial optical systems.- 6.6 Propagation in astigmatic paraxial optical systems.- 6.7 Bessel’s waves.- 6.8 Bessel-Gauss beams.- 6.9 Resonant cavity.- Bibliographical references.- 7 Light propagation in anisotropic media.- Introduction.- 7.1 Crystallography.- 7.2 The dielectric tensor.- 7.3 Crystal classes and principal axes.- 7.4 Propagation modes for the field D.- 7.5 Propagation modes for the field E.- 7.6 Relations between the surfaces of phase velocity, group velocity and wave vectors.- 7.7 Refraction at the interface with an anisotropic medium.- 7.8 Interference with birefringent plates.- 7.9 Bianisotropy.- 7.10 Form birefringence.- 7.11 Devices of manipulation and analysis of the polarization.- Bibliographical references.- Appendix A Conventions on electromagnetism.- Appendix B Mathematical relations.- B.1 Vector formulas.- B.2 Theorems on integral.- B.3 Bessel functions.- B.4 Fresnel integrals.- B.5 Error function.- Appendix C The founding fathers of Optics.- Author index.- Analytical index.
This textbook provides a sound foundation in physical optics by covering key concepts in a rigorous but accessible manner. Propagation of electromagnetic waves is examined from multiple perspectives, with explanation of which viewpoints and methods are best suited to different situations. After an introduction to the theory of electromagnetism, reflection, refraction, and dispersion, topics such as geometrical optics, interference, diffraction, coherence, laser beams, polarization, crystallography, and anisotropy are closely examined. Optical elements, including lenses, mirrors, prisms, classical and Fabry-Perot interferometers, resonant cavities, multilayer dielectric structures, interference and spatial filters, diffraction gratings, polarizers, and birefringent plates, are treated in depth. The coverage also encompasses such seldom-covered topics as modeling of general astigmatism via 4x4 matrices, FFT-based numerical methods, and bianisotropy, with a relativistic treatment of optical activity and the Faraday and Fresnel-Fizeau effects. Finally, the history of optics is discussed.
Giovanni Giusfredi is currently a senior associate at INO-CNR, having retired in 2016 from INO, where he had been a lead researcher for almost 30 years. He remains actively involved in research and collaborates with colleagues at the European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy. He is also a founding member of CNR ppqSense. His research interests are wide ranging and he has coauthored more than 220 titles, including 71 articles in international journals. He is skilled and experienced in the teaching of Physical Optics and the History of Optics.
Utilizziamo i cookie di profilazione, anche di terze parti, per migliorare la navigazione, per fornire servizi e proporti pubblicità in linea con le tue preferenze. Se vuoi saperne di più o negare il consenso a tutti o ad alcuni cookie clicca qui. Chiudendo questo banner o proseguendo nella navigazione acconsenti all’uso dei cookie.