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Neurotransmitter Actions in the Vertebrate Nervous System




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Dettagli

Genere:Libro
Lingua: Inglese
Editore:

Springer

Pubblicazione: 04/2012
Edizione: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985





Trama

Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte­ brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog­ nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol­ ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap­ proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.




Sommario

I. Amino Acids.- 1. GABA: Presynaptic Actions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Presynaptic Inhibition.- 3. Primary Afferent Depolarization.- 4. The Eccles’ Hypothesis.- 5. Mechanisms of PAD.- 5.1. K+ and PAD.- 5.2. Two Components to PAD.- 6. Distribution of GABA in the Spinal Cord.- 7. GABA and Afferent Terminals.- 7.1. Afferent Terminals in the Cat Spinal Cord.- 7.2. The Isolated Spinal Cord.- 7.3. The Dorsal Root Ganglion.- 7.4. Sensory Neurons in Culture.- 7.5. The Dorsal Column Nuclei.- 7.6. Characteristics of the GABA Receptor on Afferent Neurons.- 8. GABA Metabolism and PAD.- 9. GABA Desensitization.- 10. GABA and Other Presynaptic Terminals.- 10.1. Sympathetic Ganglia.- 10.2. Olfactory Cortex.- 11. Autoreceptors.- 12. Summary.- References.- 2. GABA and Glycine: Postsynaptic Actions.- 1. Background.- 1.1. GABA in the Invertebrate Nervous System.- 1.2. GABA in the Vertebrate CNS.- 1.3. Glycine in the Vertebrate CNS.- 1.4. GABA Receptor Complexes.- 2. Physiological Actions in the Central Nervous System.- 2.1. Release Mechanisms.- 2.2. Membrane Mechanisms.- 2.3. Termination of Transmitter Action.- 2.4. Use-Dependence of IPSPs.- 3. Modes of Inhibitory Action.- 3.1. Prevention of Impulse Generation.- 3.2. Dendritic Inhibition.- 3.3. Dendrodendritic Inhibition.- 4. Physiological Actions of GABA in Peripheral Systems.- 4.1. Sympathetic Ganglia.- 4.2. Parasympathetic Ganglia.- 4.3. Myenteric Plexus.- 5. Conclusions and Functional Considerations.- References.- 3. GABA and Glycine: Ion Channel Mechanisms.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Electropharmacology of Cl- Conductance Mechanisms.- 2.1. Current-Clamp Observations.- 2.2. Voltage-Clamp Observations.- 3. Synaptically Activated Cl- Conductance Mechanisms.- 3.1. Long-Lasting Synaptic Conductance in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.- 3.2. Pharmacological Modulation of IPSCs in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 4. Glutamate.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Overview and Synaptic Pathways.- 1.2. Distribution and Release.- 2. Physiological Actions of Glutamate.- 2.1. Invertebrate Preparations.- 2.2. The Lamprey, a Lower Vertebrate.- 2.3. Amphibia and Mammals.- 3. Glutamate Agonists.- 4. Excitatory Amino Acid Receptors.- 5. Implications for Clinical Medicine and Neurotoxicology.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 5. Excitatory Amino Acids: Membrane Physiology.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Receptor Pharmacology.- 1.2. Physiology.- 2. Intracellular Recording, Voltage Clamp and Patch Clamp.- 2.1. N-Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA).- 2.2. Glutamate and Aspartate.- 3. Excitatory Synaptic Transmission.- 3.1. The 1a EPSP.- 3.2. Excitatory Transmission in the Hippocampus.- 3.3. Excitatory Transmission in Spinal Cord Cultures.- 4. Summary and Commentary.- References.- II. Acetylcholine.- 6. Acetylcholine.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Overview.- 1.2. Acetylcholine Release.- 1.3. Inactivation of Acetylcholine.- 1.4. Cholinergic Receptors.- 1.5. Central Cholinergic Pathways.- 1.6. Functional Correlates of Identifiable Cholinergic Pathways.- 2. Extracellular Studies in the Central Nervous System.- 2.1. Nicotinic Excitation.- 2.2. Muscarinic Excitation.- 2.3. Muscarinic Inhibition.- 2.4. Synaptic Actions of Ascending Cholinergic Projections and the Possible Role of Acetylcholine-Mediated Disinhibition.- 2.5. Multiple Responses of Individual Neurons and Complexities to the Receptor Classification Scheme.- 3. Ionic Events Underlying Muscarinic Excitation of Central Neurons.- 3.1. Intracellular Studies in Vivo and in the Hippocampal Slice.- 3.2. Acetylcholine and Anomalous Rectification.- 3.3. Studies on the M Current Under Voltage Clamp.- 3.4. Muscarinic Inhibition of the Afterhyperpolarization.- 3.5. The Initial Inhibition Evoked by Acetylcholine.- 3.6. Disinhibitory Effects of Acetylcholine.- 3.7. Cholinergic Synaptic Actions in the CNS.- 4. Actions of Acetylcholine in the Periphery.- 4.1. Nicotinic Excitation at the Neuromuscular Junction.- 4.2. Cholinergic Synaptic Actions in Autonomic Ganglia.- 5. Intracellular Events Resulting from Muscarinic Receptor Stimulation.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- III. Biogenic Amines.- 7. Serotonin.- 1. Historical Perspective and Overview.- 1.1. Distribution of Serotonergic Neurons.- 1.2. Serotonin Receptors.- 2. Central Serotonergic Neurons.- 3. Postsynaptic Actions of Serotonin in the Central Nervous System.- 3.1. Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons.- 3.2. Neostriatal Neurons.- 3.3. Facial Motoneurons.- 3.4. Spinal Cord.- 4. Postsynaptic Actions of Serotonin in the Peripheral Nervous System.- 4.1. Myenteric Plexus Neurons.- 4.2. Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.- 4.3. Autonomic Ganglia Neurons.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 8. Norepinephrine.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Overview.- 1.2. Distribution of Norepinephrine Neurons.- 1.3. Adrenoceptors.- 2. Responses Mediated by ?2-Adrenoceptors.- 2.1. Sympathetic Ganglia.- 2.2. Sensory Ganglia.- 2.3. Myenteric Plexus.- 2.4. Locus Coeruleus.- 2.5. Preganglionic Sympathetic Neurons.- 2.6. Substantia Gelatinosa.- 3. Responses Mediated by ?1-Adrenoceptors.- 3.1. Facial and Spinal Motoneurons.- 3.2. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.- 3.3. Neocortex.- 3.4. Dorsal Raphe Nucleus.- 3.5. Hypothalamus.- 4. Responses Mediated by ?-Adrenoceptors.- 4.1. Cerebellum.- 4.2. Hippocampus.- 5. Responses Mediated by Interneurons.- 5.1. Olfactory Bulb.- 5.2. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 9. Dopamine.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective.- 1.2. Distribution of Dopamine Neurons and Fibers.- 1.3. Dopamine Receptors.- 2. Central Dopamine Neuron Electrophysiology.- 2.1. Electrophysiological Identification.- 2.2. Morphology.- 2.3. Electrophysiological Characteristics.- 2.4. Endogenous Pacemaker Activity.- 2.5. Firing Pattern.- 2.6. Electrical Coupling.- 2.7. Autoreceptor Stimulation.- 2.8. Dopamine Neuron Explants.- 3. Postsynaptic Actions of Dopamine in the Central Nervous System.- 3.1. Striatum.- 3.2. Frontal Cortex.- 3.3. Hippocampus.- 3.4. Retina.- 3.5. Interactions with Other Transmitters.- 4. Postsynaptic Actions of Dopamine in the Peripheral Nervous System.- 4.1. Superior Cervical Ganglion.- 4.2. Carotid Body.- 4.3. Dorsal Root Ganglion.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 10. Histamine.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective.- 1.2. Regional and Subcellular Distribution.- 1.3. Pathways in Brain.- 1.4. Metabolism and Release.- 1.5. Histamine Receptors.- 1.6. Histamine Neurons in Invertebrates.- 2. Central Nervous System: Studies in Vivo.- 2.1. Spinal Cord.- 2.2. Brainstem.- 2.3. Hypothalamus.- 2.4. Cortex.- 3. Central Nervous System: Studies in Vitro.- 3.1. Hypothalamus.- 3.2. Hippocampus.- 4. Sympathetic Ganglia.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- IV. Neuropeptides.- 11. Opioid Peptides: Central Nervous System.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective and Overview.- 1.2. Opioid Peptides.- 1.3. Opioid Receptors.- 2. Cellular Actions of Opioids.- 2.1. Dorsal Root Ganglia.- 2.2. Locus Coeruleus.- 2.3. Hippocampus.- 2.4. Spinal Cord.- 3. Summary and Functional Considerations.- References.- 12. Opioid Peptides: Peripheral Nervous System.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective and Overview.- 1.2. Distribution of Enkephalin-Containing Neurons.- 1.3. Opioid Receptors.- 2. Autonomic Ganglia.- 2.1. Effects on Cholinergic Excitation.- 2.2. Effects on Synaptic Inhibition.- 2.3. Effects on Noncholinergic Slow Excitation.- 2.4. Neurally Evoked Enkephalinergic Inhibition.- 3. Autonomic Neuroeffector Junctions and the Enteric Nervous System.- 3.1. Effects on Adrenergic and Cholinergic Transmission.- 3.2. Effects on Nonadrenergic, Noncholinergic Transmission.- 3.3. Direct Effects on Myenteric Neurons.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 13. Substance P.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective.- 1.2. Distribution of Substance P Neurons and Fibers.- 1.3. Substance P Receptors and Antagonists.- 2. Action in the Central Nervous System.- 2.1. Spinal Motoneurons and Cuneate Neurons.- 2.2. Mouse Spinal Cord Neurons in Culture.- 2.3. Dorsal Horn Neurons.-







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Altre Informazioni

ISBN:

9781468449631

Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 254 x 178 mm Ø 1023 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 511
Pagine Romane: xxviii






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