Micromanipulation By Light In Biology And Medicine - Greulich Karl Otto | Libro Birkhäuser 10/2011 - HOEPLI.it

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greulich karl otto - micromanipulation by light in biology and medicine

Micromanipulation by Light in Biology and Medicine The Laser Microbeam and Optical Tweezers

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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 10/2011
Edizione: 1999


There are probably few people who do not dream of the good old times, when do­ ing science often meant fascination, excitement, even adventure. In our time, do­ ing science involves often technology and, perhaps, even business. But there are still niches where curiosity and fascination have their place. The subject of this book, technological as its title may sound, is one of the fortunate examples. It will report on lasers generating the coldest places in the Universe, and on table top laser microtools which can produce a heat "inferno" as it prevails in the interior of the Sun, or simulate, for specific plant cells, microgravity of the space around our plan­ et Earth. There will be some real surprises for the reader. The applications range from basic studies of the driving forces of cell division (and thus life) via genetic modification of cells (for example, for plant breeding) to medical applications such as blood cell analysis and finally in vitro fertilization. What are these instruments: laser microbeams and optical tweezers? Both are lasers coupled with a fluorescence microscope. The laser microbeam uses a pulsed ultraviolet laser. Light is focused, as well as possible, in space and time, in order to obtain extremely high light intensities - high enough to generate, for a very short instant, extremely hot spots which can be used to cut, fuse or perforate biological material.


Introduction: The history of using light as a working tool.- 1 From photons to the laser microtools.- 1.1 Light.- 1.1.1 Light is a special form of electromagnetic radiation.- 1.1.2 The energy carried by light.- 1.1.3 Photons and their social behavior.- 1.1.4 The (relativistic) mass of a photon.- 1.1.5 Light pressure: Where does it come from?.- 1.1.6 Cooling of atoms and molecules by light: What optical tweezers have in common with the coldest place in the Universe.- 1.2 Lasers: sources of peculiar light.- 1.2.1 Laser light: Spectral purity, coherence and divergence.- 1.2.2 Principles of lasing.- 1.2.3 Inversion, three and four energy-state lasers.- 1.2.4 Pumping: The primary energy source for lasers.- 1.2.5 Laser resonators and laser modes.- 1.2.6 Changing the colors: Frequency multiplication.- 1.2.7 Real lasers.- 1.3 Microscopes and cameras.- 1.3.1 Different types of light microscopy.- 1.3.2 Object illumination.- 1.3.3 The magnification of a microscope.- 1.3.4 A two-lens microscope.- 1.3.5 Real microscopes.- 1.3.6 Microscope objectives.- 1.3.7 Microscope detectors.- 1.4 Laser microbeams and optical tweezers.- 1.4.1 Choice of the laser.- 1.4.2 Choice of microscope and objective.- 1.4.3 Building a microbeam and/or optical tweezers.- 1.4.4 The coupling unit.- 1.4.5 Mounting the parts and adjusting the lasers.- 1.4.6 “Flying spot” - and multiple beam optical tweezers.- 1.4.7 Combination of laser microbeam and optical tweezers.- 2 Why and how light can be used as a microtool.- 2.1 Pulsed laser microbeams.- 2.1.1 Pulsed lasers can be focused to extreme intensities.- 2.1.2 Bringing the Sun into the lab.- 2.1.3 Why is the laser microbeam so precise: The heat is absorbed immediately.- 2.1.4 The electric fields are also impressive.- 2.1.5 Caution: X-rays.- 2.2 Interaction of pulsed lasers with biological matter.- 2.2.1 High intensities in medical surgery.- 2.2.2 Photons cooperate at extreme intensities.- 2.2.3 Heat shocks from a laser microbeam: Too fast to damage proteins.- 2.2.4 Working in the interior of closed objects.- 2.3 Interaction of optical tweezers with biological material.- 2.3.1 The wavelength makes the difference.- 2.3.2 Thermal effects in continuous laser microbeams.- 2.3.3 Interaction of NdYAG optical tweezers (1064nm) with cells.- 2.3.4 The surprise: NdYAG lasers are not the best choice.- 2.3.5 Two-photon excited fluorescence for detecting damage in IR optical traps.- 2.4 Light pressure: Some quantitative relationships.- 2.4.1 Calculating some surprising facts.- 2.4.2 Mie particles: The color of the target affects the light force.- 2.4.3 Light forces on very small (Rayleigh) particles.- 2.5 Gradient forces: Full control in three dimensions.- 2.5.1 Axial and transversal effects.- 2.5.2 Why are particles pushed towards the optical axis?.- 2.5.3 Why are particles pulled against the light pressure force?.- 2.5.4 Quantitative influence of objective illumination and of refractive indices.- 2.6 Unprecedented accuracy and precision: Nanometers and piconewtons.- 2.6.1 The escape force method for calibrating optical tweezers.- 2.6.2 The stiffness method.- 2.6.3 Calibration by thermal motion: The corner frequency method.- 2.6.4 Calibration by thermal motion: The minimal information method.- 2.6.5 Split photodiodes and interferometers for nanometer accuracies.- 3 From the first simple experiments to sophisticated applications of laser microtools.- 3.1 Microbeams in developmental biology.- 3.1.1 Drosophila: From the embryos to the organism.- 3.1.2 Laser microbeams study of the development of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans.- 3.1.3 The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans.- 3.1.4 Other nervous systems.- 3.1.5 Plant root development: Clonal or positional determination of cell fate?.- 3.2 Intermezzo I: Cells and cellular organelles.- 3.2.1 Prokaryotic cells: Bacteria.- 3.2.2 Cell membranes.- 3.2.3 Eukaryotic cells: Cells with a nucleus.- 3.2.4 The nucleus of eukaryotic cells.- 3.2.5 The cytoskelton and structure-stabilizing intracellular strands.- 3.2.6 Subcellular structures: Mitochondria and chloroplasts.- 3.2.7 Cell types for work with laser microbeams and optical tweezers.- 3.3 Laser microbeam studies on unicellular organisms, cells and subcellular structures.- 3.3.1 Negative and positive chemotaxis induced by laser ablation.- 3.3.2 Laser microbeam treatment of flagella, cilia and pseudopodia in unicellular organisms.- 3.3.3 Ablation of melanophores in fish.- 3.3.4 Ablation of mitochondria to study heart function.- 3.3.5 Nucleoli.- 3.3.6 Actomyosin fibrils and cytoplasmic strands.- 3.3.7 Laser ablation of interphase chromatin in the nucleus.- 3.4 Optical tweezers enter the stage.- 3.4.1 Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria.- 3.4.2 The step toward infrared optical tweezers.- 3.4.3 Single-cell sorters.- 3.4.4 Brakes for biological motors: The compliance of bacterial flagella.- 3.4.5 The slipper animalcule survives moving subcellular organelles and the nucleus.- 3.4.6 Neural growth cone membranes.- 4 Mitosis, molecular motors and muscles: What laser microtools can teach us.- 4.1 Intermezzo II: Reproduction and motion.- 4.1.1 The cell cycle.- 4.1.2 Details of mitosis.- 4.1.3 Details of the interphase.- 4.1.4 Microtubules.- 4.1.5 Intracellular traffic: cytoplasmic streaming.- 4.1.6 Molecular motors.- 4.1.7 Forces generated by single molecules.- 4.2 What drives cell division? Laser microtools help to find the answer.- 4.2.1 From the early days to complete micromanipulation by laser light.- 4.2.2 Kinetochores and centrosomes: The secret of symmetric distribution of chromosomes.- 4.2.3 Microablation studies on intranuclear metaphase chromosomes.- 4.2.4 Micotubule polymerization dynamics and flexibility.- 4.3 Molecular motors: True nanotechnology.- 4.3.1 Optical tweezers and single motor protein mechanics.- 4.3.2 Molecular force measurements in vivo: Mitochondria transport in the amoeba Reticulomyxa.- 4.3.3 Kinesin.- 4.3.4 Dynein — not as exact as kinesin.- 4.3.5 Myosin/actin: Single heads can do the work.- 4.3.6 Differences between skeletal and smooth muscle.- 4.3.7 Molecular bungee: Titin.- 4.3.8 Laser microbeams for preparing the smallest functional unit of a muscle.- 5 DNA as a molecular individuum.- 5.1 The ultimate DNA analytics: Single molecules.- 5.1.1 DNA: Astronomical dimensions and unlimited variability.- 5.1.2 Handling of DNA.- 5.1.3 Laser microdissection of single DNA molecules.- 5.1.4 The elasticity of a single DNA molecule.- 5.1.5 Two types of elasticity in DNA.- 5.2 Single molecule DNA reactions.- 5.2.1 From general properties to single molecule reactions.- 5.2.2 Cutting of an individual DNA molecule by the restricition endonucleases Apa 1.- 5.2.3 Transcription against a force.- 5.3 Intermezzo III: Genes, chromosomes and genetic diseases.- 5.3.1 Packing DNA: Chromatin.- 5.3.2 From chromatin to chromosomes.- 5.3.3 Banded chromosomes and cytogenetic nomenclature.- 5.3.4 Genome sizes of different organisms.- 5.3.5 Genetic diseases.- 5.4 Laser microdissection of chromosomes.- 5.4.1 The motivation for microdissection of chromosomes.- 5.4.2 Microdissection of chromosomes.- 5.4.3 Submicroscopic effects of laser microdissection.- 5.4.4 Combined use of laser microbeam and optical tweezers.- 5.4.5 Microcloning.- 5.4.6 PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).- 6 From biology to medicine.- 6.1 Laser microtools in plant cell biology.- 6.1.1 Optical trapping in the interior of plant cells.- 6.1.2 Simulating microgravity in the alga Chara.- 6.1.3 Preparing free plant membranes for patch clamp studies.- 6.2 Microperforation of cell walls and cell membranes.- 6.2.1 Laser microinjection: What do biologists want to know.- 6.2.2 Laser-assisted gene transfer into animal cells.- 6.2.3 Direct microinjection of genes into plant cells: The laser is often without alternative.- 6.2.4 Injection of DNA into isolated chloroplasts and into chloroplasts within a plant cell.- 6.3 From laser-induced cell fusion to antibodies and immunology.- 6.3.1 How to avoid sex: Cell fus

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Collana: Methods in Bioengineering
Dimensioni: 235 x 155 mm Ø 482 gr
Formato: Brossura
Pagine Arabe: 300
Pagine Romane: xii

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