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havskov jens; alguacil gerardo - instrumentation in earthquake seismology

Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology


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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 11/2015
Edizione: 2nd ed. 2016


This work provides an up-to-date overview of modern instruments used in earthquake seismology as well as a description of theoretical and practical aspects of seismic instrumentation. The main topics are:

• Choosing and installing equipment for seismic stations
• Designing and setting up seismic networks and arrays
• Maintaining and calibrating seismic instruments

It also provides detailed descriptions of the following:

• Seismic sensors
• Digitizers
• Seismic recorders
• Communication systems
• Software used for seismic station and networks

In this second edition, new seismic equipment is presented and more comprehensive sections on topics like MEMS accelerometers, sigma-delta AD converters, dynamic range discussion and virtual networks have been included.

This book is primarily intended for seismologists, engineers and technicians working with seismological instruments. It combines practical “know-how” with sufficient theory to explain the basic principles, making it also suitable for teaching students the most important aspects of seismic instrumentation. 

The book also gives a current overview of the majority of instruments and instrument manufacturers on the market, making it easy to compare the capability of instruments from different sources.

SEISAN software was used for several examples in the book. This widely extended seismic analysis software is freely available from the University of Bergen website.

The content of this book draws on the authors’ (a seismologist and a physicist) combined experience of working in this field for more than 35 years.


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.1 Sensor 

1.2 Recorder

1.3 Stations and networks

1.4 Arrays 

1.5 Instrument correction and calibration 


CHAPTER 2   Seismic sensors 

2.1 The standard inertia seismometer 

2.2 Seismometer frequency response

2.3 Seismometer frequency response, alternative solution 

2.4 The velocity transducer

2.4.1 Electromagnetic damping 

2.4.2 Polarity convention 

2.5 Instrument response curves, different representation 

2.6 Sensor response to transient signals 

2.7 Damping constant 

2.8 Construction of seismic sensors 

2.8.1 The Wood Anderson short period torsion sensor 

2.8.2 Long period sensors 

2.8.3 Garden-gate 

2.8.4 Inverted pendulum 

2.8.5 LaCoste

2.8.6 Rotational seismometer 

2.9 Sensor calibration coil 

2.10 Active sensors

2.11 Accelerometers 

2.12 Velocity broadband sensors 

2.13 Extending the frequency response, inverse filtering and feed back 

2.14 Theoretical aspects of active sensors 

2.14.1 General response of a feedback system 

2.14.2 The basic Force-Balanced Accelerometer 

2.14.3 Broadband feedback seismometers

2.14.4 Servo velocity sensors

2.14.5 Other feedback techniques 

2.15 Sensor self noise

2.16 Noise in passive sensors coupled to amplifiers, theoretical aspects 

2.17 Some new trends in seismic sensors 

2.17.1 Seismometers with electrochemical transducers

2.17.2 Micromachined accelerometers and seismometers 

2.17.3 Piezoelectric sensors 

2.18 Sensor parameters 

2.18.1 Frequency response

2.18.2 Sensitivity

2.18.3 Sensor dynamic range 

2.18.4 Sensor linearity 

2.18.5 Sensor cross axis sensitivity 

2.18.6 Sensor gain and output 

2.18.7 Sensor adjustments 

2.19 Examples of sensors

2.19.1 Exploration type 4.5 Hz geophone

2.19.2 Short period sensorS 

2.19.3 Accelerometer, the Kinemetrics Episensor

2.19.4 Broadband sensors 

2.19.5 Negative feedback sensors, Lennartz LE-3D 

2.19.6 Borehole sensors 

2.20 Summary of sensor specifications

2.21 Which sensor to choose 


CHAPTER 3   Seismic noise

3.1 Observation of noise 

3.2 Noise spectra 

3.3 Relating power spectra to amplitude measurements

3.4 Origin of seismic noise 


CHAPTER 4  Analog to digital converter 

4.1 Example of a simple analog to digital converter, the Flash ADC 

4.2 Basic ADC properties

4.3 A typical ADC, the ramp ADC

4.4 Multi channel ADC

4.5 Digitizers for a higher dynamic range 

4.6 Oversampling for improvement of the dynamic range

4.7 Sigma Delta ADC, SDADC 

4.7.1 How sigma-delta improves digitization noise: theory

4.8 Aliasing

4.9 Anti alias filters

4.10 Dynamic range, different definitions 

4.11 Examples of digitizers


CHAPTER 5 Seismic Recorders

5.1 Analog amplifier 

5.1.1 Differential input-output

5.2 Analog filters 

5.2.1 Amplifier specifications and noise

5.3 Analog recording 

5.4 Introduction to digital recorders 

5.5 Digitizing 

5.6 Time stamping of data 

5.7 Storage media and recording in a ring buffer 

5.7.1 The SEED format 

5.7.2 Ring buffer 

5.7.3 Naming seismic channels 

5.8 Seismic triggers

5.9 Summary of trigger parameters and their settings 

5.10 Communication and data retrieval 

5.11 Public domain data acquisition systems 

5.12 Seismic recorders in use

5.14 Examples of recorders

5.15 Which recorder to choose 



Correction for instrument response 

6.1 Linear systems 

6.2 Spectral analysis and the Fourier transform 

6.3 Noise power spectrum 

6.4 General instrument correction in frequency and time domain

6.5 General representation of the frequency response function 

6.6 Anti alias filters

6.7 Instrument correction and polarity 

6.8 Combining response curves 

6.9 Common ways of giving response information 

6.9.1 GSE

6.9.2 SEED

6.9.3 SAC

6.9.4 SEISAN 

6.9.5 How to make and maintain response files


CHAPTER 7  Seismic stations 

7.1 Geographical location of a seismic station

7.2 Site selection and seismic noise survey 

7.3 Installation of the seismic station

7.4 Sensor installation 

7.4.1 Broadband sensor installation 

7.4.2 Borehole installations 

7.4.3 What is a good VLP station 

7.5 Temporary installation of seismic stations

7.6 Lightning and over-voltage protection 

7.7 Power

7.7.1 Stations running off the main AC supply 

7.7.2 Batteries 

7.8 Power sources

7.8.1 Solar cells 

7.8.2 Wind generators 

7.8.3 Fuel cells 


CHAPTER 8  Seismic networks 

8.1 Purpose of seismic networks 

8.2 Network geometry 

8.3 Network configuration: Physical and virtual networks 

8.4 Physical network with fixed transmission links

8.4.1 Communication standards 

8.5 Virtual seismic networks 

8.6 Offline virtual seismic networks 

8.7 Seismic data transmission 

8.8 Analog data transmission

8.9 Radio links 

8.9.1 Simplex-duplex 

8.9.2 Point to point or point to multi point radio networks 

8.9.3 Spread spectrum 

8.9.4 Radio link construction and equipment 

8.9.5 Radio links with repeater stations 

8.10 Telephone and satellite 

8.11 Digital data transmission protocols and some examples of their use

8.11.1 Serial data communication 

8.11.2 TCP/IP communication

8.11.3 Compression of digital data 

8.11.4 Error correction methods used with seismic signals

8.11.5 Seismic data transmission and timing 

8.11.6 Remote control, Communication and graphics 

8.12 Examples of networks

8.13 Running a seismic network 

8.13.1 Physical operation 

8.13.2 Data processing

8.14 How to make your own permanent network 


CHAPTER 9  Seismic Arrays

9.1 Basic array parameters 

9.2 Array transfer function 

9.3 Instruments characteristics 

9.4 Field arrangement

9.5 Example of a portable array 


CHAPTER 10 Calibration and testing

10.1 Test equipment and recording of test signals

10.2 Sensors

10.2.1 Sensor free period

10.2.2 Seismometer damping 


Jens Havskov is researcher in the Department of Earth Science at the University of Bergen.
Gerardo Alguacil is researcher in the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Granada.

Altre Informazioni



Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 235 x 155 mm Ø 8469 gr
Formato: Copertina rigida
Illustration Notes:XVI, 413 p.
Pagine Arabe: 413
Pagine Romane: xvi

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