Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System. In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing. Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data. The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding.
1. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction 2. Airborne and Space-borne Remote Sensing of Cryosphere 3. Aircraft and Space Atmospheric Measurements Using Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) 4. Contemporary Sea Level Variations, Observations and Causes 5. Coral Reef Ecosystems 6. Earth System Environmental Literacy 7. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE): Detection of Ice Mass Loss, Terrestrial Mass Changes, and Ocean Mass Gains 8. Heat Content and Temperature of the Ocean 9. Hurricane and Monsoon Tracking with Driftsondes 10. Large-Scale Ocean Circulation: Deep Circulation and Meridional Overturning 11. Long-Term Ecological Research Network 12. Ocean Acidification 13. Ocean Evaporation and Precipitation 14. Ocean Observatories and Information: Building a Global Ocean Observing Network 15. Oil Spill Remote Sensing 16. Remote Sensing Applications to Ocean and Human Health 17. Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters 18. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color 19. Volcanoes, Observations and Impact Index
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