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brennan-ing mark (curatore); porter kristen e. (curatore); kaufman jennifer e. (curatore); macphail catherine (curatore); seeley janet (curatore) - aging with hiv in sub-saharan africa

Aging with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa Health and Psychosocial Perspectives

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Lingua: Inglese


Pubblicazione: 06/2023
Edizione: 1st ed. 2022


 With the development of effective antiretroviral therapies (ART) in the mid-1990s, HIV became a treatable although serious condition, and people who are adherent to HIV medications can attain normal or near-normal life expectancies. Because of the success of ART, people 50 and older now make up a majority of people with HIV in high-income countries and other places where ART is accessible. The aging of the HIV epidemic is a global trend that is also being observed in low- and middle-income countries, including countries in sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest number of older people with HIV reside (3.7 million). While globally over half of older adults with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, we have little information about the circumstances, needs, and resiliencies of this population, which limits our ability to craft effective policy and programmatic responses to aging with HIV in this region. At present, our understanding of HIV and aging is dominated by information from the U.S. and Western Europe, where the epidemiology of HIV and the infrastructure to provide social care are markedly different than in sub-Saharan Africa. Aging with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa addresses this gap in our knowledge by providing current research and perspectives on a range of health and psychosocial topics concerning these older adults from across this region. This volume provides a unique and timely overview of growing older with HIV in a sub-Saharan African context, covering such topics as epidemiology, health and functioning, and social support, as well as policy and program implications to support those growing older with HIV.

There are very few published volumes that address HIV and aging, and this is the first book to consider HIV and aging in sub-Saharan Africa. Most publications in this area focus on HIV and aging in Uganda and South Africa. This volume broadens the scope with contributions from authors working in West Africa, Botswana, and Kenya. The range of topics covered here will be useful to professionals in a range of disciplines including psychology, epidemiology, gerontology, sociology, health care, public health, and social work.


1.       Foreword


Mark Brennan-Ing


2.       Epidemiology of HIV in the older African population


F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé


The HIV epidemic has been associated with a younger population, but this no longer holds true. Before effective treatment was available, AIDS mortality in sub-Saharan Africa was rising, peaking in the early 2000s. Then, with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, life expectancy of people living with HIV increased. Their survival resulted in a higher prevalence of HIV in the over-50 population, creating a double burden of diseases, where HIV coexists with noncommunicable conditions. This double burden places extra stress on an already weak primary health system, especially in rural settings. Older people are also acquiring HIV. Prevention campaigns mainly target young people. People over 50 may therefore engage in high-risk sexual behavior that exposes them to infection, resulting in higher than expected HIV incidence. It is crucial to understand how older people perceive their risk of contracting HIV in order to institute effective preventive measures.


3.       Multiple chronicities: Aging bodies, wellbeing, and chronic HIV in Eastern Africa


Josien de Klerk


The concept of multiple chronicities is used to argue that living with chronic HIV is not a singular experience. Building on ethnographic work in two rural settings (Tanzania) and an urban setting (Kenya), this chapter frames older people’s living with the virus as a social experience, blurring the distinction between being infected and being affected by loss and prolonged caregiving. In East African where HIV is endemic, older people’s personal and family histories with the virus shape the multiplicity of chronic HIV. The embodied experience of chronic HIV for older people is not only about how the virus behaves in the older body but also about the management of traumatic memories of caregiving and loss. HIV interplays with other chronic conditions, such as noncommunicable diseases and economic conditions. The presentation of a senior service model that acknowledges HIV as multiple chronicity exemplifies how models of HIV care could be developed in endemic contexts.


4.       Comorbid conditions occurring in older adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana: A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study of patient data


Kabo Matlho


Although people over the age of 50 account for more than 20% of those living with HIV in Botswana, they are largely underrepresented in HIV research and tailored interventions. Yet the interaction of aging and HIV may involve an increased risk for and exacerbation of chronic illnesses such as tuberculosis (TB); cardiovascular, kidney, and liver diseases; diabetes; hypertension; and cancers, as well as cognitive decline. These comorbidities complicate treatment and potentially increase mortality. This study gauged the existence and magnitude of comorbidities within the aging HIV cohort in Botswana using data from patients age 35 and older who were on first-line antiretroviral therapy. The data show a higher rate of specific comorbidities in adults 50 and older compared with those age 35-49. TB was particularly prevalent in older men, and hypertension was most prevalent among older women. Multimorbidity is pronounced among those aging with HIV in Botswana. Guidelines and policies need to adapt to the changing demographics and evolving challenges.


5.       Expectations of health and illness in older age through the lens of the HIV-epidemic in Uganda


Joseph Mugisha & Janet Seeley

We focus on how the experience of living through the HIV epidemic shapes older people’s responses to (and fears about) chronic illness and health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the example of Uganda, we examine the ways in which the particular time people encountered HIV in their lives affects their understanding and perception of ill health and concerns about the risks HIV continues to pose. For example, older people who nursed their relatives through HIV-related illness prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to see HIV as a death sentence; those living with HIV and on ART, schooled in the discipline of taking their tablets daily, doubt the seriousness of conditions for which there is a curative treatment. We draw on the work of Leventhal and colleagues (2016) and concepts from the “Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation” of how the response to information on an asymptomatic chronic condition may be shaped by people’s experience of other conditions, such as HIV.


6.       Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

Mark Brennan-Ing, Jennifer E. Kaufman, Kristen Porter, Catherine MacPhail, Janet Seeley, S. E. Karpiak, Francois Venter, Monica Kuteesa, Louise Geddes, & Joel Negin

We have little information about sexual health among older adults with HIV (OAH) in sub-Saharan Africa, limiting our ability to mount effective secondary prevention efforts. This information is vital since adults remain sexually active well into old age and may be a vector for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. We used data from OAH from Uganda (N=101) and South Africa (N=108) and made comparisons on sexual health and risk behaviors. Substantial proportions of OAH in both countries were sexually active, but there were significant differences in HIV disclosure and condom use. Findings suggest that secondary HIV prevention for OAH requires greater attention. Differences in sexual activity and sexual risk among OAH in South Africa and Uganda point to cultural and social influences, warranting caution against broad generalizations about OAH in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need for tailored policy and programmatic solutions to address sexual health.

7.       “Ask those who are ahead about a buffalo”: Well-being of grandparents with HIV in Uganda and South Africa

Kristen Porter, Catherine MacPhail, Janet Seeley, S. E. Karpiak, Francois Venter, Monica Kuteesa, Louise Geddes, Joel Negin, & Mark Brennan-Ing

Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region most profoundly affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. The United Nations (April 2019) reported that of 98 countries, it is most common for older adults to be living with younger children in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Older sub-Saharan African adults are frequently involved in grandchild care, but little is known on how this impacts the grandparents’ well-being. While more is known about grandparents caring for HIV-positive grandchildren (i.e., “AIDS orphans”), the impact of caring for grandchildren on HIV-positive grandparents is nascent. This chapter draws upon a cross-sectional study of older grandparents living with HIV in Uganda and South Africa (N=209). Using a stress process framework, the role of potential stress factors (e.g., cohabitating with grandchild, comorbidities, health-related quality of life) on psychological well-being is examined.

8.       Mental health in older people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: A review and future research recommendations

Charlotte Bernard & Nathalie de Rekeneire

In sub-Saharan Africa, as elsewhere, increasing use of HIV medical services and antiretroviral therapy (ART) mean that HIV is now considered a chronic disease. With ag


Mark Brennan-Ing, PhD, is Director of Research and Evaluation at the Brookdale Center for Healthy Aging at Hunter College, City University of New York. Dr. Brennan-Ing’s research focuses on psychosocial issues affecting persons living with HIV and older sexual minority and gender diverse adults. They are Past-President of the State Society on Aging of New York (SSANY), a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), a Fellow of Division 44 (Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity) of the American Psychological Association, and past Board Member of the New York Association on HIV over Fifty (NYAHOF). They were the Principal Convener for GSA’s HIV/AIDS and Aging interest group, a member of the American Society on Aging’s LGBT Aging Information Network Leadership Council, and 2016 Chair of the American Psychological Association’s Committee on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. They were an invited member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of AIDS Research Working Group on HIV and Aging in 2011. Dr. Brennan-Ing has been recognized for their work by the Hunter-Brookdale Center on Aging, Pride Senior Network, and the New York State Office for the Aging. In 2017 they received the Walter M. Beattie Award from SSANY. Dr. Brennan-Ing was the lead editor of Older Adults with HIV: An In-depth Examination of an Emerging Population (2009) and the 2016 volume HIV and Aging: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics (vol. 42), which received a “High Commendation” from the British Medical Association. They have authored over 100 peer-reviewed articles, chapters, and books.

Kristen E. Porter, PhD, MAc, LAc, began working in the HIV field in 1994, first as a clinician, then as a nonprofit executive director of an HIV/AIDS integrative medicine clinic. After receiving her PhD in gerontology from University of Massachusetts Boston, she completed postdoctoral training at ACRIA’s Center on HIV and Aging in New York (2015-2017). During that time, she was part of an international team of collaborating researchers on HIV and aging in sub-Saharan Africa. Her conference presentations on the topic include “Aging with HIV. Transgender Older Adults: Challenges, Resources, Resilience” (2019; 9th Annual LGBT Elders in an Ever Changing World, Salem State University, Salem, MA), “Older Adults with HIV in South Africa: Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence” (2016; 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, LA), and “Complementary and integrative health (CIH) use in older adults with HIV” (2016; 21th International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa). Her research has centered on resilience among those aging with HIV, as well as sexual and gender minorities, and can be found in peer-review journals (such as Journals of Gerontology, The Gerontologist, Research on Aging, Clinical Gerontologist, Journal of Applied Gerontology) and the book Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Health and Aging (Ed. Hardacker et al., Springer, 2019).

Jennifer E. Kaufman, MPH, is a Senior Research Associate at the Brookdale Center for Healthy Aging at Hunter College, City University of New York. Her current work focuses on older people with HIV, sexual and gender minorities, and health messaging and technology access for older adults. Her interests also include health policy and the economics of aging, and her research on the wellbeing of older adults has covered a range of topics, such as creative aging programs, family caregiving, and racial disparities in the economic effects of dementia. Ms. Kaufman has an extensive editorial background at academic presses, journals, and textbook publishers, and in education and social policy research. She holds a master’s degree in public health policy and management from the Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York.

Catherine MacPhail, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Public Health in the School of Health and Society at the University of Wollongong, Australia. She has published extensively on HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa where her focus is on understanding how structural issues impact young women’s HIV vulnerability and how older adults experience ageing with HIV. She is also working on whether HIV prevention technologies for women might be useful for eliminating HIV in Australia, sexual behaviours of diverse communities, and domestic and family violence. Her research publications appear in high-quality peer-reviewed journals such as Social Science and Medicine and Culture, Health and Sexuality and are widely cited.

Janet Seeley, PhD, is a social anthropologist by training. She is a Professor of Anthropology and Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Before joining the School in April 2014,

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Condizione: Nuovo
Dimensioni: 235 x 155 mm Ø 367 gr
Formato: Brossura
Illustration Notes:XII, 223 p. 3 illus., 1 illus. in color.
Pagine Arabe: 223
Pagine Romane: xii

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